Zuletzt publiziert

  • Zeitschriftenartikel

    Updated Nomogram Incorporating Percentage of Positive Cores to Predict Probability of Lymph Node Invasion in Prostate Cancer Patients Undergoing Sentinel Lymph Node Dissection. 

    Winter, Alexander; Kneib, Thomas; Wasylow, Clara; Reinhardt, Lena; Henke, Rolf-Peter; Engels, Svenja; Gerullis, Holger; Wawroschek, Friedhelm
    Journal of Cancer 2017; 8(14) p.2692-2698
    Objectives: To update the first sentinel nomogram predicting the presence of lymph node invasion (LNI) in prostate cancer patients undergoing sentinel lymph node dissection (sPLND), taking into account the percentage of positive cores. Patients and Methods: Analysis included 1,870 prostate cancer patients who underwent radioisotope-guided sPLND and retropubic radical prostatectomy. Prostate-specific antigen (PSA), clinical T category, primary and secondary biopsy Gleason grade, and percentage of positive cores were included in univariate and multivariate logistic regression models predicting LNI, and constituted the basis for the regression coefficient-based nomogram. Bootstrapping was applied to generate 95% confidence intervals for predicted probabilities. The area under the receiver operator characteristic curve (AUC) was obtained to quantify accuracy. Results: Median PSA was 7.68 ng/ml (interquartile range (IQR) 5.5-12.3). The number of lymph nodes removed was 10 (IQR 7-13). Overall, 352 patients (18.8%) had LNI. All preoperative prostate cancer characteristics differed significantly between LNI-positive and LNI-negative patients (P<0.001). In univariate accuracy analyses, the proportion of positive cores was the foremost predictor of LNI (AUC, 77%) followed by PSA (71.1%), clinical T category (69.9%), and primary and secondary Gleason grade (66.6% and 61.3%, respectively). For multivariate logistic regression models, all parameters were independent predictors of LNI (P<0.001). The nomogram exhibited a high predictive accuracy (AUC, 83.5%). Conclusion: The first update of the only available sentinel nomogram predicting LNI in prostate cancer patients demonstrates even better predictive accuracy and improved calibration. As an additional factor, the percentage of positive cores represents the leading predictor of LNI. This updated sentinel model should be externally validated and compared with results of extended PLND-based nomograms.
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    Institutional pioneers in world politics: Regional institution building and the influence of the European Union 

    Lenz, Tobias; Burilkov, Alexandr
    European Journal of International Relations 2017; 23(3) p.654-680
    What drives processes of institution building within regional international organizations? We challenge those established theories of regionalism, and of institutionalized cooperation more broadly, that treat different organizations as independent phenomena whose evolution is conditioned primarily by internal causal factors. Developing the basic premise of ‘diffusion theory’ — meaning that decision-making is interdependent across organizations — we argue that institutional pioneers, and specifically the European Union, shape regional institution-building processes in a number of discernible ways. We then hypothesize two pathways — active and passive — of European Union influence, and stipulate an endogenous capacity for institutional change as a key scope condition for their operation. Drawing on a new and original data set on the institutional design of 34 regional international organizations in the period from 1950 to 2010, the article finds that: (1) both the intensity of a regional international organization’s structured interaction with the European Union (active influence) and the European Union’s own level of delegation (passive influence) are associated with higher levels of delegation within other regional international organizations; (2) passive European Union influence exerts a larger overall substantive effect than active European Union influence does; and (3) these effects are strongest among those regional international organizations that are based on founding contracts containing open-ended commitments. These findings indicate that the creation and subsequent institutional evolution of the European Union has made a difference to the evolution of institutions in regional international organizations elsewhere, thereby suggesting that existing theories of regionalism are insufficiently able to account for processes of institution building in such contexts.
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    Supermarket purchase contributes to nutrition-related non-communicable diseases in urban Kenya. 

    Demmler, Kathrin M.; Klasen, Stephan; Nzuma, Jonathan M.; Qaim, Matin
    PloS one 2017; 12(9): Art. e0185148
    BACKGROUND: While undernutrition and related infectious diseases are still pervasive in many developing countries, the prevalence of non-communicable diseases (NCD), typically associated with high body mass index (BMI), is rapidly rising. The fast spread of supermarkets and related shifts in diets were identified as possible factors contributing to overweight and obesity in developing countries. Potential effects of supermarkets on people's health have not been analyzed up till now. OBJECTIVE: This study investigates the effects of purchasing food in supermarkets on people's BMI, as well as on health indicators such as fasting blood glucose (FBG), blood pressure (BP), and the metabolic syndrome. DESIGN: This study uses cross-section observational data from urban Kenya. Demographic, anthropometric, and bio-medical data were collected from 550 randomly selected adults. Purchasing food in supermarkets is defined as a binary variable that takes a value of one if any food was purchased in supermarkets during the last 30 days. In a robustness check, the share of food purchased in supermarkets is defined as a continuous variable. Instrumental variable regressions are applied to control for confounding factors and establish causality. RESULTS: Purchasing food in supermarkets contributes to higher BMI (+ 1.8 kg/m2) (P<0.01) and an increased probability (+ 20 percentage points) of being overweight or obese (P<0.01). Purchasing food in supermarkets also contributes to higher levels of FBG (+ 0.3 mmol/L) (P<0.01) and a higher likelihood (+ 16 percentage points) of suffering from pre-diabetes (P<0.01) and the metabolic syndrome (+ 7 percentage points) (P<0.01). Effects on BP could not be observed. CONCLUSIONS: Supermarkets and their food sales strategies seem to have direct effects on people's health. In addition to increasing overweight and obesity, supermarkets contribute to nutrition-related NCDs. Effects of supermarkets on nutrition and health can mainly be ascribed to changes in the composition of people's food choices.
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    Abstracts of the 52nd Workshop for Pediatric Research 

    van den Bruck, Rhea; Weil, Patrick P.; Ziegenhals, Thomas; Schreiner, Philipp; Juranek, Stefan; Gödde, Daniel; Vogel, Silvia; Schuster, Frauke; Orth, Valerie; Dörner, Johannes; et al.
    Pembaur, DanielRöper, MeikeStörkel, StefanZirngibl, HubertWirth, StefanJenke, Andreas C. W.Postberg, JanBoy, NikolasHeringer, JanaHaege, GiselaGlahn, Esther M.Hoffmann, Georg F.Garbade, Sven F.Burgard, PeterKölker, StefanChao, Cho-MingYahya, FaadyMoiseenko, AlenaShrestha, AmitAhmadvand, NegahQuantius, JenniferWilhelm, JochenEl-Agha, ElieZimmer, Klaus-PeterBellusci, SaverioStaufner, ChristianKölker, StefanProkisch, HolgerHoffmann, Georg F.Seeliger, StephanMüller, MatthiasHippe, AndreasSteinkraus, HenrikWauer, RolandLachmann, BurkhardHofmann, Sigrun R.Hedrich, Christian M.Zierk, JakobArzideh, FarhadHaeckel, RainerRascher, WolfgangRauh, ManfredMetzler, MarkusThieme, SebastianBandoła, JoannaRichter, CorneliaRyser, MartinJamal, ArshadAshton, Michelle P.von Bonin, MalteKuhn, MatthiasHedrich, Christian M.Bonifacio, EzioBerner, ReinhardBrenner, SebastianHammersen, JohannaHas, CristinaNaumann-Bartsch, NoraStachel, DanielKiritsi, DimitraSöder, StephanTardieu, MathildeMetzler, MarkusBruckner-Tuderman, LeenaSchneider, HolmBohne, F.Langer, D.Cencic, R.Eggermann, T.Zechner, U.Pelletier, J.Zepp, F.Enklaar, T.Prawitt, D.Pech, MartinWeckmann, MarkusHeinsen, Femke-AnouskaFranke, AndreHapple, ChristineDittrich, Anna-MariaHansen, GesineFuchs, Olivervon Mutius, ErikaOliver, Brian G.Kopp, Matthias V.Paret, ClaudiaRusso, AlexandraTheruvath, JohannaKeller, BettinaEl Malki, KhalifaLehmann, NadineWingerter, ArthurNeu, Marie A.Aslihan, Gerhold-AyWagner, WolfgangSommer, ClemensPietsch, TorstenSeidmann, LarissaFaber, JörgSchreiner, FelixAckermann, MerleMichalik, MichaelRother, EvaBilkei-Gorzo, AndrasRacz, IldikoBindila, LauraLutz, BeatDötsch, JörgZimmer, AndreasWoelfle, JoachimFischer, Hendrik S.Ullrich, Tim L.Bührer, ChristophCzernik, ChristophSchmalisch, GerdStein, RobertHofmann, Sigrun R.Hagenbuchner, JudithKiechl-Kohlendorfer, UrsulaObexer, PetraAusserlechner, Michael J.Loges, Niki T.Frommer, Adrien TobiasWallmeier, JuliaOmran, HeymutÖner-Sieben, SonerGimpfl, MartinaRozman, JanIrmler, MartinBeckers, JohannesDe Angelis, Martin HrabeRoscher, AdelbertWolf, EckhardEnsenauer, ReginaNemes, KarolinaFrühwald, MichaelHasselblatt, MartinSiebert, ReinerKordes, UweKool, MarcelWang, HaicuiHardy, HollyRefai, OsamaBarwick, Katy E. S.Zimmerman, Holly H.Weis, JoachimBaple, Emma L.Crosby, Andrew H.Cirak, SebahattinHellmuth, C.Uhl, O.Standl, M.Heinrich, J.Thiering, E.Koletzko, B.Blümel, LenaKerl, KorneliusPicard, DanielFrühwald, Michael C.Liebau, Max C.Reifenberger, GuidoBorkhardt, ArndtHasselblatt, MartinRemke, MarcTews, D.Wabitsch, M.Fischer-Posovszky, P.Westhoff, Mike-AndrewNonnenmacher, LisaLanghans, JuliaSchneele, LukasTrenkler, NancyDebatin, Klaus-Michael
    Molecular and Cellular Pediatrics 2017; 4(S1)
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  • Zeitschriftenartikel

    A Conceptual Framework for the Integration of Corporate Social Responsibility and Human Resource Development Based on Lifelong Learning 

    Ketschau, Thilo
    Sustainability 2017; 9(9): Art. 1545
    Companies often see themselves as actors in a process of sustainable development that takes place in society. With this self-conception comes the challenge to act in a socially responsible way. The following paper presents a framework to integrate the concepts of Corporate Social Responsibility and Human Resource Development to create an approach that can address this responsibility. The concepts of Corporate Social Responsibility and Human Resource Development are linked by the idea of lifelong learning, incorporating concepts and ideas from the field of education into the framework, which makes it possible to examine the issue of promotion and social advancement irrespective of an individual’s social background. The article lays a foundation for the framework by describing the concepts named above and later on conceptualizes a three-part framework that helps to analyse the development of entrepreneurial structures that enable social commitment through company education. With this framework, an innovative approach to link a corporation’s social and educational engagement for mutual benefit is given an applicable form, with the immanent potential for the development of social sustainability. The research presented in this paper is purely theoretical and its results offer a connection point for practical interventions.
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  • Monografie

    Energieeffizienz in Klein- und Kleinstunternehmen des Handwerks 

    Runst, Petrik; Bettendorf, Axel
    Volkswirtschaftliches Institut für Mittelstand und Handwerk an der Universität Göttingen: Göttingen, 2017
    Die vorliegende Kurzstudie zur betrieblichen Energieeffizienz greift auf Daten zurück, welche in einer gemeinsamen Umfrage der Handwerkskammern Trier, Düsseldorf, Saarbrücken, Koblenz, Hamburg und Münster erhoben worden sind. Sie basiert auf Antworten von 203 Handwerksunternehmen. Es wurde gezeigt, dass für das Thema Energieeffizienz vorrangig der/die Inhaber/in verantwortlich ist. Über die Hälfte der Befragten kennen ihre Energiekosten; bei größeren Unternehmen steigt der Anteil auf über 75 %. Die Verantwortlichen informieren sich hauptsächlich über niedrigschwellige Angebote, wie Energieversorger, Herstellerangaben oder das Internet. Gebäudesanierungen stellen die häufigste Energieeffizienzmaßnahme (EEM) dar. Das Wissen über die eigenen Energiekosten hat einen Einfluss darauf, ob das Unternehmen überhaupt im EEM-Bereich aktiv wird. Es gibt außerdem einen Zusammenhang zwischen Immobilienbesitz und der Durchführung von EEMs, welcher auf die Existenz eines Mieter- Vermieter-Dilemmas hindeutet. Die Gründe für eine Nicht-Durchführung von EEMs sind hauptsächlich wirtschaftlicher Natur (mangelnde Rentabilität bzw. lange Amortisationszeiten). Es scheint hier auch ein Zusammenhang mit dem demografischen Wandel zu bestehen; Betriebsnachfolgeprobleme werden häufig als Grund für die Nicht-Umsetzung von EEMs angegeben. Außerdem geben die Unternehmen an, dass das Thema Energieeffizienz für sie wenig relevant ist, was sich durch den geringen Energiekostenanteil an den Gesamtkosten erklären könnte. Wenn EEMs durchgeführt werden, geschieht dies häufig im Zusammenhang mit Ersatz-Investitionen oder durch den Wunsch nach Werterhalt, selten aber durch betriebswirtschaftliches Kalkül oder eine ökologische Ausrichtung des Unternehmens. Die Nutzung von Fördermitteln, Energieberatern und Energiemanagement-Systemen sind stark von der Unternehmensgröße abhängig. Für die beiden erstgenannten Themen kann vermutet werden, dass der bürokratische Aufwand den Nutzen oft übersteigt.
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  • Zeitschriftenartikel

    Puangthong R. Pawakapan, State and Uncivil Society in Thailand at the Temple of Preah Vihear. Singapore: ISEAS, 2013, 124 pp. ISBN 9789814459907. Price: USD 19.90 (paperback). 

    Hauser-Schäublin, Brigitta
    Bijdragen tot de taal-, land- en volkenkunde / Journal of the Humanities and Social Sciences of Southeast Asia 2013; 170(4) p.597-598
    not available
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    One Size Fits All? The Validity of a Composite Poverty Index Across Urban and Rural Households in South Africa 

    Steinert, Janina Isabel; Cluver, Lucie Dale; Melendez-Torres, G. J.; Vollmer, Sebastian
    Social Indicators Research
    Composite indices have been prominently used in poverty research. However, validity of these indices remains subject to debate. This paper examines the validity of a common type of composite poverty indices using data from a cross-sectional survey of 2477 households in urban and rural KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa. Multiple-group comparisons in structural equation modelling were employed for testing differences in the measurement model across urban and rural groups. The analysis revealed substantial variations between urban and rural respondents both in the conceptualisation of poverty as well as in the weights and importance assigned to individual poverty indicators. The validity of a ‘one size fits all’ measurement model can therefore not be confirmed. In consequence, it becomes virtually impossible to determine a household’s poverty level relative to the full sample. Findings from our analysis have important practical implications in nuancing how we can sensitively use composite poverty indices to identify poor people.
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    Economic growth and child malnutrition – Authors' reply 

    Vollmer, Sebastian; Harttgen, Kenneth; Subramanyam, Malavika; Finlay, Jocelyn; Klasen, Stephan; Subramanian, S V
    The Lancet Global Health 2016; 4(12): Art. e903
    not available
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    A review of the ecosystem functions in oil palm plantations, using forests as a reference system 

    Dislich, Claudia; Keyel, Alexander C.; Salecker, Jan; Kisel, Yael; Meyer, Katrin M.; Auliya, Mark; Barnes, Andrew D.; Corre, Marife D.; Darras, Kevin; Faust, Heiko; et al.
    Hess, BastianKlasen, StephanKnohl, AlexanderKreft, HolgerMeijide, AnaNurdiansyah, FuadOtten, FennaPe'er, GuySteinebach, StefanieTarigan, SuriaTölle, Merja H.Tscharntke, TejaWiegand, Kerstin
    Biological Reviews
    Oil palm plantations have expanded rapidly in recent decades. This large-scale land-use change has had great ecological, economic, and social impacts on both the areas converted to oil palm and their surroundings. However, research on the impacts of oil palm cultivation is scattered and patchy, and no clear overview exists. We address this gap through a systematic and comprehensive literature review of all ecosystem functions in oil palm plantations, including several (genetic, medicinal and ornamental resources, information functions) not included in previous systematic reviews. We compare ecosystem functions in oil palm plantations to those in forests, as the conversion of forest to oil palm is prevalent in the tropics. We find that oil palm plantations generally have reduced ecosystem functioning compared to forests: 11 out of 14 ecosystem functions show a net decrease in level of function. Some functions show decreases with potentially irreversible global impacts (e.g. reductions in gas and climate regulation, habitat and nursery functions, genetic resources, medicinal resources, and information functions). The most serious impacts occur when forest is cleared to establish new plantations, and immediately afterwards, especially on peat soils. To variable degrees, specific plantation management measures can prevent or reduce losses of some ecosystem functions (e.g. avoid illegal land clearing via fire, avoid draining of peat, use of integrated pest management, use of cover crops, mulch, and compost) and we highlight synergistic mitigation measures that can improve multiple ecosystem functions simultaneously. The only ecosystem function which increases in oil palm plantations is, unsurprisingly, the production of marketable goods. Our review highlights numerous research gaps. In particular, there are significant gaps with respect to socio-cultural information functions. Further, there is a need for more empirical data on the importance of spatial and temporal scales, such as differences among plantations in different environments, of different sizes, and of different ages, as our review has identified examples where ecosystem functions vary spatially and temporally. Finally, more research is needed on developing management practices that can offset the losses of ecosystem functions. Our findings should stimulate research to address the identified gaps, and provide a foundation for more systematic research and discussion on ways to minimize the negative impacts and maximize the positive impacts of oil palm cultivation.
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  • Zeitschriftenartikel

    Religion and new immigrants' labor market entry in Western Europe 

    Koenig, M.; Maliepaard, M.; Gu veli, A.
    Ethnicities 2016; 16(2) p.213-235
    This paper analyzes the effects of religious participation upon a major socio-economic integration outcome, namely employment, among recent Christian and Muslim newcomers in three Western European destination countries: Germany, the Netherlands, and Great Britain. The paper revisits theoretical arguments about religious participation as an ethnic investment strategy or, alternatively, as a bridge to the societal mainstream. Drawing on the longitudinal dataset produced in the international survey project on ‘Socio-cultural Integration Processes among New Immigrants in Europe’ (SCIP), the paper puts these arguments to a rigorous test by analyzing effects of involvement in religious communities on employment and by scrutinizing channeling effects of the ethnic composition of religious congregations for recent migrants’ entry into mainstream versus ethnic niche economies. The paper finds only limited support for either of the two arguments, suggesting that religious participation is structurally decoupled from socio-economic integration. However, persisting net employment gaps between recent Christian and Muslim immigrants might indicate the existence of religiously marked and socio-economically consequential boundaries in Western Europe.
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  • Zeitschriftenartikel

    Do second-generation Turkish migrants in Germany assimilate into the middle class? 

    Hartmann, J.
    Ethnicities 2014; 16(3) p.368-392
    The understanding of career paths of migrants is crucial for gaining deeper insights into assimilation processes. However, previous studies in Germany have paid little attention to middle-class assimilation and the career sequences of the second generation of migrants. This paper focuses on early employment career patterns of the children of guest workers, both men and women and especially those of Turkish origin, in comparison to native Germans. Using the German Socioeconomic Panel data set, I apply sequence analysis and regression analysis techniques to describe and assess differences in their success of middle-class assimilation in early employment careers. The findings are robust for two unique definitions of holding a middle-class position, and suggest that large differences exist between native-born Germans and second-generation Turks, and especially between second-generation Turkish women and native German women. The results for second-generation Turkish men indicate that their differences can be explained entirely by education. In the case of second-generation Turkish women, the causes for their disadvantage are more complex and include their lower education, language skills, and host-country-specific social capital as well as group-specific penalties for marriage and childbirth.
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  • Monografie

    Vor- und Nachteile des Meisterbriefs im Vergleich zu freiwilligen Qualifikationszertifikaten 

    Lankau, Matthias; Müller, Klaus
    Volkswirtschaftliches Institut für Mittelstand und Handwerk an der Universität Göttingen: Göttingen, 2017
    Im Falle handwerklicher Produkte und Dienstleistungen des Baugewerbes handelt es sich um sogenannte Vertrauensgüter, da ein (Laien-)Kunde ihre Qualität auch nach dem Kauf meist nur schwer beurteilen kann. Ohne ein geeignetes Regulierungsinstrument birgt diese Asymmetrie in der Verteilung der Qualitätsinformation zu Lasten des Kunden die Gefahr des Versagens des Markts für hohe Qualität und damit die Gefährdung von Konsumenten. Das Ziel dieser Kurzstudie ist es, zu erörtern, ob die derzeitige Regulierung des A-Handwerks im Baugewerbe in Form des Meistervorbehalts durch ein Alternativinstrument ersetzt werden könnte, ohne dass der Markt für hohe Qualität versagt und Konsumenten gefährdet werden. Zurzeit muss jeder Leiter eines Betriebs des A-Handwerks über die Qualifikation eines Meisters oder einem als gleichwertig betrachteten Äquivalent verfügen. Durch die hohe Qualifikation der Handwerker erhöht sich tendenziell auch die Qualität der Produkte und Dienstleistungen im gesamten Markt der A-Handwerke. Demzufolge verringert sich das Problem des Marktversagens aufgrund asymmetrisch verteilter Qualitätsinformationen, da jeder Kunde auf ein Mindestmaß an Qualifikation und demzufolge Qualität vertrauen kann. Darüber hinaus wird ein Mindestmaß an Verbraucherschutz durch die Abwehr potenzieller Gefahren von den Konsumenten erreicht. Ein Nachteil, den der Meistervorbehalt in den A-Handwerken mit sich bringt, ist, dass hierdurch Anbieter mit niedrigen Qualifikationen keinen Zugang zum Markt der A-Handwerke haben. Hierdurch fehlt es strukturell an Angeboten im Niederpreissegment, wodurch jene Konsumentenschicht benachteiligt wird, die niedrige Qualität zu günstigen Preisen nachfragt. Durch freiwillige Qualifikationszertifikate könnte sich der Handwerksmarkt unter bestimmten Umständen, die diese Studie näher erläutert, in Hochpreissegmente für höhere Qualität sowie in Niederpreissegmente teilen. Die Analyse zeigt jedoch, dass dies Konsumentengefährdungen nicht ausschließt. Gerade im Niederpreissegment haben Handwerker nur geringe Anreize, in ihre Qualifikation zu investieren. Somit steigen hier die Wahrscheinlichkeit schlechter Dienstleistungsqualität sowie das Potenzial der Gefährdung der Konsumenten. Alles in allem lässt sich hieraus folgern, dass freiwillige Zertifizierungen nur in den Branchen des Handwerks eine Alternative zum Meisterbrief sein könnten, in denen Konsumentengefährdungen auszuschließen sind. Darüber hinaus gilt es hier jedoch genau zu überprüfen, ob die Abschaffung des Meistervorbehalts nicht weitere Regulierungsziele, wie die Sicherstellung der hohen Ausbildungsleistung des Handwerks, kompromittieren würde.
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  • Zeitschriftenartikel

    Smoothing Parameter and Model Selection for General Smooth Models 

    Wood, Simon N.; Pya, Natalya; Säfken, Benjamin
    Journal of the American Statistical Association 2017; 111(516) p.1548-1563
    This article discusses a general framework for smoothing parameter estimation for models with regular likelihoods constructed in terms of unknown smooth functions of covariates. Gaussian random effects and parametric terms may also be present. By construction the method is numerically stable and convergent, and enables smoothing parameter uncertainty to be quantified. The latter enables us to fix a well known problem with AIC for such models, thereby improving the range of model selection tools available. The smooth functions are represented by reduced rank spline like smoothers, with associated quadratic penalties measuring function smoothness. Model estimation is by penalized likelihood maximization, where the smoothing parameters controlling the extent of penalization are estimated by Laplace approximate marginal likelihood. The methods cover, for example, generalized additive models for nonexponential family responses (e.g., beta, ordered categorical, scaled t distribution, negative binomial and Tweedie distributions), generalized additive models for location scale and shape (e.g., two stage zero inflation models, and Gaussian location-scale models), Cox proportional hazards models and multivariate additive models. The framework reduces the implementation of new model classes to the coding of some standard derivatives of the log-likelihood. Supplementary materials for this article are available online.
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  • Zeitschriftenartikel

    Fissures in the discourse-scape: Critique, rationality and validity in post-foundational approaches to CDS 

    Macgilchrist, Felicitas
    Discourse & Society 2016; 27(3) p.262-277
    This article explores one challenge facing critical discourse studies (CDS) in today’s mediatised world: the ontological and epistemological assumptions which prompt studies to analyse the construction of social orders (such as right-wing, racist or neoliberal orders) rather than the fissures and dislocations of these social orders. The former foregrounds stability, and the latter foregrounds instability. In this article, I first sketch postfoundational thinking, arguing that this thinking brings breakdown, disruption and instability to the centre of attention. Although postfoundational thought is most prominently associated with a particular set of thinkers (Nancy, Lefort, Laclau and Rancière), I also include approaches often omitted from current discussions (Lather, Haraway, Malabou and Sedgwick). Second, I consider three central concepts in CDS from a postfoundational perspective: critique, rationality and validity. Critique is conceptualised as a generative criticality which addresses unequal power relations through (fine-grained) analysis of hope-giving, reparative discourse which is oriented to well-being. Rationality is positioned as mobile, contingent, political and positioned, rather than universal and non-subjective. Validity is separated from understandings of objectivity and bias and associated instead with surprise and transgressive validities. Finally, two brief examples illustrate how postfoundational approaches to discourse have engaged with reframing social movements and democracy and rethinking what counts as the economy.
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  • Monografie

    Ceremonial houses of the Abelam-Papua New Guinea 

    Hauser-Schäublin, Brigitta
    Crawford House Publishing [Printausgabe]GoeScholar [Online-Ausgabe]: Goolwa, S.A. [Printausgabe], 2016
    The ceremonial houses of the Abelam people (East Sepik Province, Papua New Guinea) rank as architectural masterpieces. The impressive buildings with their richly painted façade are built on a triangular ground plan. They often reached heights of up to 30 metres, towering above even the tallest coconut palms. They were constructed completely without nails, all elements being held together with the aid of vines and liana ropes; they were built by communal labour and reflected the strength of the respective community. Outside the ceremonial cycle they served as repositories for sacred carvings but during initiations they became the place of stupendous ritual installations. The novices entered the house through a low, tunnel-like entrance before they were confronted with dramatically staged cult images inside. Following this revelation they were led out through a narrow exit at the back on to a small, hidden ceremonial ground where they remained in seclusion for several weeks. Up to the mid-1980s, knowledge concerning the construction and meaning of ceremonial houses was passed on to the next generation by means of practice (learning by doing). However, since then the Abelam have converted to Christianity and turned their backs on traditional belief and knowledge: they no longer build ceremonial houses and initiations are a matter of the past. This book is part of the author’s Habilitationsschrift originally published in German in 1989. She presents an extensive description and analysis of Abelam society at a time when the people were still building ceremonial houses, staging initiations and sacrificing pigs. Thus, this work presents a cultural record of what on longer exists.
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  • Zeitschriftenartikel

    Managing risks in the Indonesian seaweed supply chain 

    Mulyati, Heti; Geldermann, Jutta
    Clean Technologies and Environmental Policy 2016; 19(1) p.175-189
    Seaweed supply chains in Indonesia, especially carrageenan and agar products, are subject to risks arising both inside the participating companies and in their external networks. Uncertainties in yield, quality, price, and infrastructure in one part of the supply chain can affect the whole chain. To ensure a sustainable seaweed industry, an appropriate supply chain risk management (SCRM) is needed. There are four critical steps in SCRM: identifying seaweed supply chains, identifying and categorizing risks, assessing risks, and mitigating risks. To identify seaweed supply chains, we conducted field research, in-depth interviews, and literature studies. The field survey was conducted in the Provinces of South Sulawesi, West Java, East Java, Banten, and West Nusa Tenggara. The seaweed supply chains were modeled by the software Umberto to get a better understanding of material and energy flows between the key members. To identify and categorize the risks, we started with the risks mentioned in the existing literature works, and then applied the Delphi method to analyze the potential risk sources, their causes, and their impacts. To assess risks, we used a semiquantitative approach through the face-to-face interviews to generate a risk map showing the likelihood, and impact of adverse events. Afterward, the risk intensity was categorized based on the value of the responses and classified into five categories: negligible, marginal, critical, most critical, and catastrophic risks. The mitigation strategies considered sustainability (environment, economy, and social) and risks criteria. Multi-criteria decision analysis was used to evaluate these strategies.
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  • Monografie

    Integration von Flüchtlingen durch Ausbildung im Handwerk - Potenziale, Herausforderungen und Erfolgsfaktoren 

    Lahner, Jörg
    Volkswirtschaftliches Institut für Mittelstand und Handwerk an der Universität Göttingen: Göttingen, 2017
    Die Integration von Migrantinnen und Migranten, speziell von Flüchtlingen, stellt eine der großen gesellschaftlichen Herausforderungen in Deutschland dar. Parallel dazu fällt es dem deutschen Handwerk immer schwerer, seinen Fachkräftebedarf zu decken. Eine wachsende Zahl an Projekten von Bund und Ländern versucht deshalb, gezielt die Ausbildung von Flüchtlingen im Handwerk zu fördern. Dabei zeigt diese Untersuchung, dass es potenziell eine Vielzahl interessierter Betriebe und motivierter Flüchtlinge mit Affinität zu einem Handwerksberuf gibt. Zudem sind die Handwerkskammern mit ihren Bildungszentren und ihren vielfältigen Erfahrungen im Bereich zielgruppenspezifischer Angebote für eine effektive Unterstützung bestens aufgestellt. Allerdings ist der Ausbildungserfolg von zahlreichen Faktoren abhängig. Erstens gilt es, die Voraussetzungen der Flüchtlinge, vor allem die sprachlichen, gründlich zu prüfen. Die Integration in den Betrieb, der Besuch der Berufsschule, Herausforderungen der persönlichen Lebenssituation (Familienverantwortung, Unterbringung etc.) sind nicht nur für Flüchtlinge kritische Faktoren des Ausbildungserfolges, Flüchtlinge haben hier jedoch häufig besondere Hürden zu meistern. Deshalb ist eine intensive sozialpädagogische Betreuung vor und während der Ausbildung in der Regel unverzichtbar. Auch wenn der vorliegende Beitrag lediglich auf der gutachterlichen Prüfung eines einzelnen Pilotprojektes fußt, lassen sich durchaus vielfältige Erkenntnisse sowohl für die Praxis als auch für die Förderpolitik ableiten. Insgesamt zeigt sich, dass die spezifischen Hindernisse in vielen Fällen überwindbar sind und Ausbildung von Flüchtlingen im Handwerk gelingen kann. Damit eröffnet sich für geneigte und gut vorbereitete Flüchtlinge eine echte Perspektive gesellschaftlicher Integration. Für das Handwerk selbst ergibt sich eine neue Option der Nachwuchssicherung, sofern eine qualifizierte Unterstützung gesichert ist und alle Beteiligten über hinreichend Geduld und Motivation verfügen.
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    Development of mathematical competency in different German pre-vocational training programmes of the transition system 

    Weißeno, Simon; Seeber, Susan; Kosanke, Janna; Stange, Constanze
    Empirical Research in Vocational Education and Training 2016; 8(1)
    Background: Mathematical competency is central to life in modern society, and it is particularly important for many occupations and professions. In Germany, young people with insufficient mathematical skills experience significant difficulties securing a training position within the dual system, and subsequently, they often enrol in prevocational programmes of the transition system. Thus, the various one-year pre-vocational training programmes aim to provide support for enhancing mathematical skills. Currently, there is a lack of information regarding whether fundamental competencies are effectively developed within the context of these pre-vocational training. Methods: Therefore, this paper examines how competencies develop and are enhanced over the course of 1 year, based on data (N = 1.258) from three different 1-year pre-vocational programmes. Growth was based on a multidimensional mathematical competency construct measured at two distinct points: at the beginning and at the end of the pre-vocational training. Results and discussion: Incorporating selected background variables, the results of the stable and valid measurement indicate that, on average, mathematical competencies did not change over the course of 1 year. However, when development was considered in greater depth, a second dimension became visible. Specifically, the mathematical competencies of one group of young people were lower after completing the prevocational programme than they were before, whereas another group achieved recognizable improvements in their competencies. Keywords: Prevocational education and training, Mathematical competency, Development of mathematical competency
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    Measuring the Biodegradability of Plastic Polymers in Olive-Mill Waste Compost with an Experimental Apparatus 

    Castellani, Francesco; Esposito, Alessandro; Stanzione, Vitale; Altieri, Roberto
    Advances in Materials Science and Engineering 2016; 2016 p.1-7: Art. 6909283
    The use of biodegradable polymers is spreading in agriculture to replace those materials derived from petroleum, thus reducing the environmental concerns. However, to issue a significant assessment, biodegradation rate must be measured in case-specific standardized conditions. In accordance with ISO 14855-1, we designed and used an experimental apparatus to evaluate the biodegradation rate of three biopolymers based on renewable resources, two poly(𝜀-caprolactone) (PCL) composites, and a compatibilized polylactic acid and polybutyrate (PLA/PBAT) blend. Biodegradation tests were carried out under composting condition using mature olive-mill waste (OMW) compost as inoculum. Carbon dioxide emissions were automatically recorded by infrared gas detectors and also trapped in saturated Ba(OH)2 solution and evaluated via a standard titration method to check the results. Some of the samples reached more than 80% biodegradation in less than 20 days. Both the experimental apparatus and the OMWcompost showed to be suitable for the cases studied.
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