Zuletzt publiziert

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    Chimpanzees monopolize and children take turns in a limited resource problem 

    Knofe, Hagen; Engelmann, Jan; Tomasello, Michael; Herrmann, Esther
    Scientific Reports 2019; 9(1): Art. 7597
    Competition over scarce resources is common across the animal kingdom. Here we investigate the strategies of chimpanzees and children in a limited resource problem. Both species were presented with a tug-of-war apparatus in which each individual in a dyad received a tool to access a reward, but tools could not be used simultaneously. We assessed the equality of tool use as well as the frequency of turn taking. Both species managed to overcome this conflict of interest but used different strategies to do so. While there was substantial variation in chimpanzee behaviour, monopolization was the common course of action: tool use was asymmetric with individual chimpanzees monopolizing the resource. In children, turn-taking emerged as the dominant strategy: tool use was symmetric and children alternated access to the tool at a high rate. These results suggest that while both species possess strategies for solving limited resource problems, humans might have evolved species unique motivations and socio-cognitive skills for dealing with such conflicts of interest.
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    Genesis and mechanisms controlling tornillo seismo-volcanic events in volcanic areas 

    Fazio, Marco; Alparone, Salvatore; Benson, Philip M.; Cannata, Andrea; Vinciguerra, Sergio
    Scientific Reports 2019; 9(1): Art. 7338
    Volcanic activity is often preceded or accompanied by different types of seismo-volcanic signals. Among these signals, the so-called tornillo (Spanish for "screw") events are considered to belong to a unique class of volcano-seismicity characterised by a long-duration coda, amplitude modulation and high-quality factor. These data constitute important evidence for the gas fraction inside magmatic fluids. However, the mechanism behind this unique signal remains not fully understood. Here we report new laboratory evidence showing that two different processes have either scale-invariant or scale-dependent effects in generating tornillo-like events. These processes are respectively the gas pressure gradient, which triggers the event and regulates the slow decaying coda, and the fluid resonance into small scale structures which, in turn, control the frequency content of the signal. Considering that the gas pressure gradient is proportional to the fluid flow, these new findings, as applied to volcanoes, provide new information to better quantify both gas rate and volume, and the dimension of the resonator.
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    Karst dolines provide diverse microhabitats for different functional groups in multiple phyla 

    Bátori, Zoltán; Vojtkó, András; Maák, István Elek; Lőrinczi, Gábor; Farkas, Tünde; Kántor, Noémi; Tanács, Eszter; Kiss, Péter János; Juhász, Orsolya; Módra, Gábor; et al.
    Tölgyesi, CsabaErdős, LászlóAguilon, Dianne JoyKeppel, Gunnar
    Scientific Reports 2019; 9(1)
    Fine-scale topographic complexity creates important microclimates that can facilitate species to grow outside their main distributional range and increase biodiversity locally. Enclosed depressions in karst landscapes (‘dolines’) are topographically complex environments which produce microclimates that are drier and warmer (equator-facing slopes) and cooler and moister (pole-facing slopes and depression bottoms) than the surrounding climate. We show that the distribution patterns of functional groups for organisms in two different phyla, Arthropoda (ants) and Tracheophyta (vascular plants), mirror this variation of microclimate. We found that north-facing slopes and bottoms of solution dolines in northern Hungary provided key habitats for ant and plant species associated with cooler and/or moister conditions. Contrarily, south-facing slopes of dolines provided key habitats for species associated with warmer and/or drier conditions. Species occurring on the surrounding plateau were associated with intermediate conditions. We conclude that karst dolines provide a diversity of microclimatic habitats that may facilitate the persistence of taxa with diverse environmental preferences, indicating these dolines to be potential safe havens for multiple phyla under local and global climate oscillations.
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    Formation and development of the male copulatory organ in the spider Parasteatoda tepidariorum involves a metamorphosis-like process 

    Quade, Felix Simon Christian; Holtzheimer, Jana; Frohn, Jasper; Töpperwien, Mareike; Salditt, Tim; Prpic, Nikola-Michael
    Scientific Reports 2019; 9(1): Art. 6945
    Spiders have evolved a unique male copulatory organ, the pedipalp bulb. The morphology of the bulb is species specific and plays an important role in species recognition and prezygotic reproductive isolation. Despite its importance for spider biodiversity, the mechanisms that control bulb development are virtually unknown. We have used confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM) and diffusible iodine-based contrast-enhanced micro computed tomography (dice-µCT) to study bulb development in the spider Parasteatoda tepidariorum. These imaging technologies enabled us to study bulb development in situ, without the use of destructive procedures for the first time. We show here that the inflated pedipalp tip in the subadult stage is filled with haemolymph that rapidly coagulates. Coagulation indicates histolytic processes that disintegrate tibia and tarsus, similar to histolytic processes during metamorphosis in holometabolous insects. The coagulated material contains cell inclusions that likely represent the cell source for the re-establishment of tarsus and tibia after histolysis, comparable to the histoblasts in insect metamorphosis. The shape of the coagulated mass prefigures the shape of the adult tarsus (cymbium) like a blueprint for the histoblasts. This suggests a unique role for controlled coagulation after histolysis in the metamorphosis-like morphogenesis of the male pedipalp.
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    The horse Y chromosome as an informative marker for tracing sire lines 

    Felkel, Sabine; Vogl, Claus; Rigler, Doris; Dobretsberger, Viktoria; Chowdhary, Bhanu P.; Distl, Ottmar; Fries, Ruedi; Jagannathan, Vidhya; Janečka, Jan E.; Leeb, Tosso; et al.
    Lindgren, GabriellaMcCue, MollyMetzger, JuliaNeuditschko, MarkusRattei, ThomasRaudsepp, TerjeRieder, StefanRubin, Carl-JohanSchaefer, RobertSchlötterer, ChristianThaller, GeorgTetens, JensVelie, BrandonBrem, GottfriedWallner, Barbara
    Scientific Reports 2019; 9(1): Art. 6095
    Analysis of the Y chromosome is the best-established way to reconstruct paternal family history in humans. Here, we applied fine-scaled Y-chromosomal haplotyping in horses with biallelic markers and demonstrate the potential of our approach to address the ancestry of sire lines. We de novo assembled a draft reference of the male-specific region of the Y chromosome from Illumina short reads and then screened 5.8 million basepairs for variants in 130 specimens from intensively selected and rural breeds and nine Przewalski's horses. Among domestic horses we confirmed the predominance of a young'crown haplogroup' in Central European and North American breeds. Within the crown, we distinguished 58 haplotypes based on 211 variants, forming three major haplogroups. In addition to two previously characterised haplogroups, one observed in Arabian/Coldblooded and the other in Turkoman/Thoroughbred horses, we uncovered a third haplogroup containing Iberian lines and a North African Barb Horse. In a genealogical showcase, we distinguished the patrilines of the three English Thoroughbred founder stallions and resolved a historic controversy over the parentage of the horse 'Galopin', born in 1872. We observed two nearly instantaneous radiations in the history of Central and Northern European Y-chromosomal lineages that both occurred after domestication 5,500 years ago.
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    Assessment of early survival and growth of planted Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris) seedlings under extreme continental climate conditions of northern Mongolia 

    Sukhbaatar, Gerelbaatar; Ganbaatar, Batsaikhan; Jamsran, Tsogtbaatar; Purevragchaa, Battulga; Nachin, Baatarbileg; Gradel, Alexander
    Journal of Forestry Research p.1-14
    Environmental factors play vital roles in successful plantation and cultivation of tree seedlings. This study focuses on problems associated with reforestation under extreme continental climatic conditions. The objectives were to assess relative seedling performance (survival and growth) with respect to plantation age, and to analyze the influence of specific climatic factors during the early stages of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) plantations. The study was carried out in reforested areas of the Tujyin Nars region of northern Mongolia on six Scots pine plantations ranging from 5 to 10 years. In each of the six plantations, five 900 m2 permanent sample plots were established and survival rates and growth performance measured annually over 7 years. Results show high variation in survival among the plantations (p < 0.001, F = 29.7). Seedling survival in the first year corresponded directly to the number of dry days in May. However, survival rate appeared to stabilize after the second year. The insignificant variation of height categories throughout the observation period indicated low competition among individuals. Two linear mixed-effect models show that height and radial growth were best explained by relative air humidity, which we consider to be a reliable indicator of site-specific water availability. Insufficient amounts and uneven distribution of rainfall pose a major threat during the first year of plantation establishment. Humidity and water availability are decisive factors for a successful seedling plantation. This highlights the impact of drought on forest plantations in northern Mongolia and the importance of developing climate resilient reforestation strategies.
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    CMEs in the Heliosphere: II. A Statistical Analysis of the Kinematic Properties Derived from Single-Spacecraft Geometrical Modelling Techniques Applied to CMEs Detected in the Heliosphere from 2007 to 2017 by STEREO/HI-1 

    Barnes, D.; Davies, J. A.; Harrison, R. A.; Byrne, J. P.; Perry, C. H.; Bothmer, V.; Eastwood, J. P.; Gallagher, P. T.; Kilpua, E. K. J.; Möstl, C.; et al.
    Rodriguez, L.Rouillard, A. P.Odstrčil, D.
    Solar Physics 2019; 294(5)
    Recent observations with the Heliospheric Imagers (HIs) onboard the twin NASA Solar Terrestrial Relations Observatory (STEREO) spacecraft have provided unprecedented observations of a large number of coronal mass ejections (CMEs) in the inner heliosphere. In this article we discuss the generation of the HIGeoCAT CME catalogue and perform a statistical analysis of its events. The catalogue was generated as part of the EU FP7 HELCATS (Heliospheric Cataloguing, Analysis and Techniques Service) project ( www.helcats-fp7.eu/ ). It is created by generating time/elongation maps for CMEs using observations from the inner (HI-1) and outer (HI-2) cameras along a position angle close to the CME apex. Next, we apply single-spacecraft geometric-fitting techniques to determine the kinematic properties of these CMEs, including their speeds, propagation directions, and launch times. The catalogue contains a total of 1455 events (801 from STEREO-A and 654 from STEREO-B) from April 2007 to the end of August 2017. We perform a statistical analysis of the properties of CMEs in HIGeoCAT and compare the results with those from the Large Angle Spectrometric Coronagraph (LASCO) CDAW catalogues (Yashiro et al.J. Geophys. Res. Space Phys.109, A07105, 2004) and the COR-2 catalogue of Vourlidas et al. (Astrophys. J.838, 141, 2004) during the same period. We find that the distributions of both speeds and latitudes for the HIGeoCAT CMEs correlate with the sunspot number over the solar cycle. We also find that the HI-derived CME speed distributions are generally consistent with coronagraph catalogues over the solar cycle, albeit with greater absolute speeds due to the differing methods with which each is derived.
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    Inhibition of proteasome rescues a pathogenic variant of respiratory chain assembly factor COA7 

    Mohanraj, Karthik; Wasilewski, Michal; Benincá, Cristiane; Cysewski, Dominik; Poznanski, Jaroslaw; Sakowska, Paulina; Bugajska, Zaneta; Deckers, Markus; Dennerlein, Sven; Fernandez‐Vizarra, Erika; et al.
    Rehling, PeterDadlez, MichalZeviani, MassimoChacinska, Agnieszka
    EMBO Molecular Medicine 2019; 11(5): Art. e9561
    Nuclear and mitochondrial genome mutations lead to various mitochondrial diseases, many of which affect the mitochondrial respiratory chain. The proteome of the intermembrane space (IMS) of mitochondria consists of several important assembly factors that participate in the biogenesis of mitochondrial respiratory chain complexes. The present study comprehensively analyzed a recently identified IMS protein cytochrome c oxidase assembly factor 7 (COA7), or RESpiratory chain Assembly 1 (RESA1) factor that is associated with a rare form of mitochondrial leukoencephalopathy and complex IV deficiency. We found that COA7 requires the mitochondrial IMS import and assembly (MIA) pathway for efficient accumulation in the IMS. We also found that pathogenic mutant versions of COA7 are imported slower than the wild‐type protein, and mislocalized proteins are degraded in the cytosol by the proteasome. Interestingly, proteasome inhibition rescued both the mitochondrial localization of COA7 and complex IV activity in patient‐derived fibroblasts. We propose proteasome inhibition as a novel therapeutic approach for a broad range of mitochondrial pathologies associated with the decreased levels of mitochondrial proteins.
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    formr: A study framework allowing for automated feedback generation and complex longitudinal experience-sampling studies using R 

    Arslan, Ruben C.; Walther, Matthias P.; Tata, Cyril S.
    Behavior Research Methods p.1-12
    Open-source software improves the reproducibility of scientific research. Because existing open-source tools often do not offer dedicated support for longitudinal data collection on phones and computers, we built formr, a study framework that enables researchers to conduct both simple surveys and more intricate studies. With automated email and text message reminders that can be sent according to any schedule, longitudinal and experience-sampling studies become easy to implement. By integrating a web-based application programming interface for the statistical programming language R via OpenCPU, formr allows researchers to use a familiar programming language to enable complex features. These can range from adaptive testing, to graphical and interactive feedback, to integration with non-survey data sources such as self-trackers or online social network data. Here we showcase three studies created in formr: a study of couples with dyadic feedback; a longitudinal study over months, which included social networks and peer and partner ratings; and a diary study with daily invitations sent out by text message and email and extensive feedback on intraindividual patterns.
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    Leidenfrost Pattern Formation and Boiling 

    Prabhakaran, Prasanth; Krekhov, Alexei; Bodenschatz, Eberhard; Weiss, Stephan
    Journal of Statistical Physics 2019; 175(3-4) p.598-616
    We report on Leidenfrost patterns and boiling with compressed sulfur hexafluoride (SF6). The experiments were carried out in a large aspect ratio Rayleigh–Bénard convection cell, where the distance between the horizontal plates is comparable with the capillary length of the working fluid. Pressures and temperatures were chosen such that the bottom plate was above and the top plate was below the liquid–vapor transition temperature of SF6. As a result, SF6 vapor condenses at the top plate and forms drops that grow in size. Leidenfrost patterns are formed as the drops do not fall but levitate by the vapor released in the gap between the hot bottom plate and the colder drops. When the size of these drops became too large, one or more vapor bubbles—chimneys—form inside them. We determine the critical size for the formation of a chimney as a function of the capillary length. For even larger drops and extended puddles many disconnected chimneys occur that can grow to sizes large enough for the formation of new drops inside them. By varying the temperatures and the pressure in the system, we observe various such patterns. When the area covered by a puddle becomes large it touches the hot bottom plate locally and boils off rapidly. This can be attributed to a local reduction of the bottom plate surface temperature below the Leidenfrost temperature.
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    Traces of Carnian volcanic activity in the Transdanubian Range, Hungary 

    Dunkl, István; Farics, Éva; Józsa, Sándor; Lukács, Réka; Haas, János; Budai, Tamás
    International Journal of Earth Sciences p.1-16
    The South Alpine–Dinaridic realm was affected by igneous activity in the Middle Triassic; the marine carbonate platforms and the adjacent basins contain highly variable intrusive-volcanic assemblages. We studied the petrography and determined the zircon U–Pb ages of the Triassic volcanic products in the Transdanubian Range. The geochemical features and thus the geodynamic context of the magmatism are badly known, as the rocks experienced variable chemical alteration. The exact duration of the igneous activity is also poorly constrained, as the geochronological data of the former studies were obtained mostly by the weathering-sensitive K–Ar and Rb–Sr methods and thus some data even being younger than the age of the stratigraphic cover. The presence of andesite dikes and of pebbles and cobbles (< 20 cm) of basalt, andesite, rhyolite and of rhyolitic tuff in the Triassic carbonate platform deposits indicates that within the Transdanubian Range formed a volcanic complex in Triassic. The major mineralogical and geochemical features of the Transdanubian igneous suite are similar to the Triassic formations in the Southern Alps. However, dissimilar zircon composition excludes the immediate relationship of the zircon-bearing silicic formations in the two tectonic units. New U–Pb ages show that the beginning of the volcanic activity is probably coeval with the eruption of the widespread “pietra verde” trachytic tuffs in the Upper Anisian–Ladinian successions, but the majority of the ages are younger than those ash layers. The new age constraints give a bench-mark for the termination of the volcanic activity in Carnian time in the Transdanubian Range.
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    Measuring approach–avoidance tendencies towards food with touchscreen-based arm movements 

    Meule, Adrian; Richard, Anna; Lender, Anja; Dinic, Radomir; Brockmeyer, Timo; Rinck, Mike; Blechert, Jens
    Psychological Research p.1-12
    Most tasks for measuring automatic approach-avoidance tendencies do not resemble naturalistic approach-avoidance behaviors. Therefore, we developed a paradigm for the assessment of approach-avoidance tendencies towards palatable food, which is based on arm and hand movements on a touchscreen, thereby mimicking real-life grasping or warding movements. In Study 1 (n = 85), an approach bias towards chocolate-containing foods was found when participants reached towards the stimuli, but not when these stimuli had to be moved on the touchscreen. This approach bias towards food observed in grab movements was replicated in Study 2 (n = 60) and Study 3 (n = 94). Adding task features to disambiguate distance change through either corresponding image zooming (Study 2) or emphasized self-reference (Study 3) did not moderate this effect. Associations between approach bias scores and trait and state chocolate craving were inconsistent across studies. Future studies need to examine whether touchscreen-based approach-avoidance tasks reveal biases towards other stimuli in the appetitive or aversive valence domain and relate to relevant interindividual difference variables.
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    Right on track? Performance of satellite telemetry in terrestrial wildlife research 

    Hofman, M. P. G.; Hayward, M. W.; Heim, M.; Marchand, P.; Rolandsen, C. M.; Mattisson, J.; Urbano, F.; Heurich, M.; Mysterud, A.; Melzheimer, J.; et al.
    Morellet, N.Voigt, U.Allen, B. L.Gehr, B.Rouco, C.Ullmann, W.Holand, Ø.Jørgensen, N. H.Steinheim, G.Cagnacci, F.Kroeschel, M.Kaczensky, P.Buuveibaatar, B.Payne, J. C.Palmegiani, I.Jerina, K.Kjellander, P.Johansson, Ö.LaPoint, S.Bayrakcismith, R.Linnell, J. D. C.Zaccaroni, M.Jorge, M. L. S.Oshima, J. E. F.Songhurst, A.Fischer, C.Mc Bride, R. T.Thompson, J. J.Streif, S.Sandfort, R.Bonenfant, C.Drouilly, M.Klapproth, M.Zinner, D.Yarnell, R.Stronza, A.Wilmott, L.Meisingset, E.Thaker, M.Vanak, A. T.Nicoloso, S.Graeber, R.Said, S.Boudreau, M. R.Devlin, A.Hoogesteijn, R.May-Junior, J. A.Nifong, J. C.Odden, J.Quigley, H. B.Tortato, F.Parker, D. M.Caso, A.Perrine, J.Tellaeche, C.Zieba, F.Zwijacz-Kozica, T.Appel, C. L.Axsom, I.Bean, W. T.Cristescu, B.Périquet, S.Teichman, K. J.Karpanty, S.Licoppe, A.Menges, V.Black, K.Scheppers, T. L.Schai-Braun, S. C.Azevedo, F. C.Lemos, F. G.Payne, A.Swanepoel, L. H.Weckworth, B. V.Berger, A.Bertassoni, A.McCulloch, G.Šustr, P.Athreya, V.Bockmuhl, D.Casaer, J.Ekori, A.Melovski, D.Richard-Hansen, C.van de Vyver, D.Reyna-Hurtado, R.Robardet, E.Selva, N.Sergiel, A.Farhadinia, M. S.Sunde, P.Portas, R.Ambarli, H.Berzins, R.Kappeler, P. M.Mann, G. K.Pyritz, L.Bissett, C.Grant, T.Steinmetz, R.Swedell, L.Welch, R. J.Armenteras, D.Bidder, O. R.González, T. M.Rosenblatt, A.Kachel, S.Balkenhol, N.
    PLOS ONE 2019; 14(5): Art. e0216223
    Satellite telemetry is an increasingly utilized technology in wildlife research, and current devices can track individual animal movements at unprecedented spatial and temporal resolutions. However, as we enter the golden age of satellite telemetry, we need an in-depth understanding of the main technological, species-specific and environmental factors that determine the success and failure of satellite tracking devices across species and habitats. Here, we assess the relative influence of such factors on the ability of satellite telemetry units to provide the expected amount and quality of data by analyzing data from over 3,000 devices deployed on 62 terrestrial species in 167 projects worldwide. We evaluate the success rate in obtaining GPS fixes as well as in transferring these fixes to the user and we evaluate failure rates. Average fix success and data transfer rates were high and were generally better predicted by species and unit characteristics, while environmental characteristics influenced the variability of performance. However, 48% of the unit deployments ended prematurely, half of them due to technical failure. Nonetheless, this study shows that the performance of satellite telemetry applications has shown improvements over time, and based on our findings, we provide further recommendations for both users and manufacturers.
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    Computational identification of tissue-specific transcription factor cooperation in ten cattle tissues 

    Steuernagel, Lukas; Meckbach, Cornelia; Heinrich, Felix; Zeidler, Sebastian; Schmitt, Armin O.; Gültas, Mehmet
    PLOS ONE 2019; 14(5): Art. e0216475
    Transcription factors (TFs) are a special class of DNA-binding proteins that orchestrate gene transcription by recruiting other TFs, co-activators or co-repressors. Their combinatorial interplay in higher organisms maintains homeostasis and governs cell identity by finely controlling and regulating tissue-specific gene expression. Despite the rich literature on the importance of cooperative TFs for deciphering the mechanisms of individual regulatory programs that control tissue specificity in several organisms such as human, mouse, or Drosophila melanogaster, to date, there is still need for a comprehensive study to detect specific TF cooperations in regulatory processes of cattle tissues. To address the needs of knowledge about specific combinatorial gene regulation in cattle tissues, we made use of three publicly available RNA-seq datasets and obtained tissue-specific gene (TSG) sets for ten tissues (heart, lung, liver, kidney, duodenum, muscle tissue, adipose tissue, colon, spleen and testis). By analyzing these TSG-sets, tissue-specific TF cooperations of each tissue have been identified. The results reveal that similar to the combinatorial regulatory events of model organisms, TFs change their partners depending on their biological functions in different tissues. Particularly with regard to preferential partner choice of the transcription factors STAT3 and NR2C2, this phenomenon has been highlighted with their five different specific cooperation partners in multiple tissues. The information about cooperative TFs could be promising: i) to understand the molecular mechanisms of regulating processes; and ii) to extend the existing knowledge on the importance of single TFs in cattle tissues.
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    The use of bat houses as day roosts in macadamia orchards, South Africa 

    Weier, Sina M.; Linden, Valerie M.G.; Grass, Ingo; Tscharntke, Teja; Taylor, Peter J.
    PeerJ 2019; 7: Art. e6954
    The loss of roost sites is one of the major drivers of the worldwide decline in bat populations and roost site preferences, either natural or artificially provided, are not well known for African bat species specifically. In this study we focus on the preference for different artificial roost sites by insectivorous bats in macadamia orchards in northern South Africa. From June 2016 to July 2017 we monitored 31 bat houses, mounted on poles in six macadamia orchards, for presence of bats or other occupants. Twentyone multi-chambered bat houses of three different designs were erected in sets of three. Additionally, five Rocket boxes, four bat houses in sets of two (painted black and white) and one colony bat house were erected. Bats were counted and visually identified to family or species level. From December 2016 to the end of March 2017 iButtons were installed to record and analyze temperature variation within one set of three bat houses. We related the occupancy of bat houses to the different types of houses and the environmental variables: distance to water, altitude and height of the bat houses above the ground. Overall bat house occupancy was significantly higher in the central bat house, in the set of three, and the black bat house, in the set of two. Mean temperatures differed between houses in the set of three with the central bat house having a significantly higher mean temperature than the houses flanking it. Our study might confirm previous assumptions that the microclimate of bat houses appears to be an important factor influencing occupancy. In conclusion, from the different bat houses tested in this study the designs we assume the warmest and best insulated attracted the most bats. Further research is needed on the preferred microclimate of different bat species, co-habitation within bat houses and the potential importance of altitude and distance to water. Our study provided little variation in both altitude and the distance to water.
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    Stimulus dependencies of an illusory motion: Investigations of the Motion Bridging Effect 

    Stein, Maximilian; Fendrich, Robert; Mattler, Uwe
    Journal of Vision 2019; 19(5) p.1-23: Art. 13
    The Motion Bridging Effect (MBE) is an illusion in which a motion that is not consciously visible generates a visible motion aftereffect that is predominantly in the same direction as the adapter motion. In the initial study of the MBE (Mattler & Fendrich, 2010), a ring of 16 points was rotated at angular velocities as high as 2250°/s so that observers saw only an unbroken outline circle and performed at chance when asked to report the ring's rotation direction. However, when the rotating ring was replaced by a veridically stationary ring of 16 points, the stationary ring appeared to visibly spin to a halt, principally in the same direction as the initial ring's rotation. Here we continue to investigate the stimulus dependencies of the MBE. We find the MBE, measured by the correspondence between the direction of the invisible rotation of the spinning ring and perceived rotation of the stationary ring, increases as the number of points used to construct the rings decreases and grows stronger as the diameter of the rings get larger. We consider the potential contributions of temporal frequency, retinal eccentricity, luminance levels, and the separation between the points forming the rings as mediators of these effects. Data is discussed with regard to the detection of real movement and apparent motion. We conclude that the detection of the rapid rotation of the spinning ring is likely to be modulated by temporal frequency of luminance changes along the ring perimeter while the point-distance may modulate an apparent motion produced by the transition from the perceptually unbroken spinning ring to the point-defined stationary ring.
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    Action priming suppression by forward masks 

    Becker, Nicolas; Mattler, Uwe
    Journal of Vision 2019; 19(5) p.1-16: Art. 1085
    Visual stimuli may produce strong and reliable effects on subsequent actions irrespective of their visibility. This dissociation between action priming and conscious perception of the stimuli suggests two ways of processing of visual stimuli. One way of processing leads to the emergence of conscious visual perception, and another way leads to action priming effects. Here we examined the influence of forward masks that precede the prime on processing for action. In three experiments, we found that forward masks can suppress and even abolish priming effects. Suppression was larger with strong rather than weak forward masks and with short rather than long prime durations. Similar suppression effects occurred with surrounding paracontrast masks and with overlapping pattern masks. Our findings emphasize that processing for action depends crucially on preceding stimuli suggesting that action priming may depend on the initial part of the response to the prime. Results indicate that the use of forward masks to reduce prime visibility may also reduce action priming and potentially other priming effects.
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    Optical and SAR Remote Sensing Synergism for Mapping Vegetation Types in the Endangered Cerrado/Amazon Ecotone of Nova Mutum—Mato Grosso 

    de Souza Mendes, Flávia; Baron, Daniel; Gerold, Gerhard; Liesenberg, Veraldo; Erasmi, Stefan
    Remote Sensing 2019; 11(10): Art. 1161
    Mapping vegetation types through remote sensing images has proved to be e ective, especially in large biomes, such as the Brazilian Cerrado, which plays an important role in the context of management and conservation at the agricultural frontier of the Amazon. We tested several combinations of optical and radar images to identify the four dominant vegetation types that are prevalent in the Cerrado area (i.e., cerrado denso, cerradão, gallery forest, and secondary forest). We extracted features from both sources of data such as intensity, grey level co-occurrence matrix, coherence, and polarimetric decompositions using Sentinel 2A, Sentinel 1A, ALOS-PALSAR 2 dual/full polarimetric, and TanDEM-X images during the dry and rainy season of 2017. In order to normalize the analysis of these features, we used principal component analysis and subsequently applied the Random Forest algorithm to evaluate the classification of vegetation types. During the dry season, the overall accuracy ranged from 48 to 83%, and during the dry and rainy seasons it ranged from 41 up to 82%. The classification using Sentinel 2A images during the dry season resulted in the highest overall accuracy and kappa values, followed by the classification that used images from all sensors during the dry and rainy season. Optical images during the dry season were su cient to map the di erent types of vegetation in our study area.
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    Mortality of Different Populus Genotypes in Recently Established Mixed Short Rotation Coppice with Robinia pseudoacacia L. 

    Rebola-Lichtenberg, Jessica; Schall, Peter; Annighöfer, Peter; Ammer, Christian; Leinemann, Ludger; Polle, Andrea; Euring, Dejuan
    Forests 2019; 10(5): Art. 410
    Short rotation coppices play an increasing role in providing wooden biomass for energy. Mixing fast-growing tree species in short rotation coppices may result in complementary e ects and increased yield. The aim of this study was to analyze the e ect on mortality of eight di erent poplar genotypes (Populus sp.) in mixed short rotation coppices with three di erent provenances of the N-fixing tree species black locust (Robinia pseudoacacia L.). Pure and mixed stands were established at two sites of contrasting fertility. Survival of poplar was assessed for each tree two times a year, for a period of three years. In the first two years, high variation in mortality was observed between the genotypes, but no significant di erences between pure and mixed stands were identified. However, three years after planting, higher mortality rates were observed in the mixtures across all poplar genotypes in comparison to pure stands. The expected advantage on growth of combining an N-fixing tree with an N-demanding tree species, such as poplar, was overshadowed by the Robinia’s dominance and competitiveness.
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  • Zeitschriftenartikel

    Erratum to: Soft-drop thrust 

    Baron, Jeremy; Marzani, Simone; Theeuwes, Vincent
    Journal of High Energy Physics 2019; 2019(5): Art. 056
    This note corrects the de nition of soft-drop thrust presented in ref. [1] so that it is collinear safe for all values of the soft-drop angular parameter 0.
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