Zuletzt publiziert

  • Zeitschriftenartikel

    Diversity and composition of herbaceous angiosperms along gradients of elevation and forest-use intensity. 

    Gómez-Díaz, Jorge Antonio; Krömer, Thorsten; Kreft, Holger; Gerold, Gerhard; Carvajal-Hernández, César Isidro; Heitkamp, Felix
    PloS one 2017; 12(8): Art. e0182893
    Terrestrial herbs are important elements of tropical forests; however, there is a lack of research on their diversity patterns and how they respond to different intensities of forest-use. The aim of this study was to analyze the diversity of herbaceous angiosperms along gradients of elevation (50 m to 3500 m) and forest-use intensity on the eastern slopes of the Cofre de Perote, Veracruz, Mexico. We recorded the occurrence of all herbaceous angiosperm species within 120 plots of 20 m x 20 m each. The plots were located at eight study locations separated by ~500 m in elevation and within three different habitats that differ in forest-use intensity: old-growth, degraded, and secondary forest. We analyzed species richness and floristic composition of herb communities among different elevations and habitats. Of the 264 plant species recorded, 31 are endemic to Mexico. Both α- and γ-diversity display a hump-shaped relation to elevation peaking at 2500 m and 3000 m, respectively. The relative contribution of between-habitat β-diversity to γ-diversity also showed a unimodal hump whereas within-habitat β-diversity declined with elevation. Forest-use intensity did not affect α-diversity, but β-diversity was high between old-growth and secondary forests. Overall, γ-diversity peaked at 2500 m (72 species), driven mainly by high within- and among-habitat β-diversity. We infer that this belt is highly sensitive to anthropogenic disturbance and forest-use intensification. At 3100 m, high γ-diversity (50 species) was driven by high α- and within-habitat β-diversity. There, losing a specific forest area might be compensated if similar assemblages occur in nearby areas. The high β-diversity and endemism suggest that mixes of different habitats are needed to sustain high γ-richness of terrestrial herbs along this elevational gradient.
    Dokument ansehen Zusammenfassung
  • Zeitschriftenartikel

    Influence of Root Diameter and Soil Depth on the Xylem Anatomy of Fine- to Medium-Sized Roots of Mature Beech Trees in the Top- and Subsoil. 

    Kirfel, Kristina; Leuschner, Christoph; Hertel, Dietrich; Schuldt, Bernhard
    Frontiers in plant science 2017; 8: Art. 1194
    Despite their importance for water uptake and transport, the xylem anatomical and hydraulic properties of tree roots have only rarely been studied in the field. We measured mean vessel diameter (D), vessel density (VD), relative vessel lumen area (lumen area per xylem area) and derived potential hydraulic conductivity (Kp) in the xylem of 197 fine- to medium-diameter roots (1-10 mm) in the topsoil and subsoil (0-200 cm) of a mature European beech forest on sandy soil for examining the influence of root diameter and soil depth on xylem anatomical and derived hydraulic traits. All anatomical and functional traits showed strong dependence on root diameter and thus root age but no significant relation to soil depth. Averaged over topsoil and deep soil and variable flow path lengths in the roots, D increased linearly with root diameter from ∼50 μm in the smallest diameter class (1-2 mm) to ∼70 μm in 6-7 mm roots (corresponding to a mean root age of ∼12 years), but remained invariant in roots >7 mm. D never exceeded ∼82 μm in the 1-10 mm roots, probably in order to control the risk of frost- or drought-induced cavitation. This pattern was overlain by a high variability in xylem anatomy among similar-sized roots with Kp showing a higher variance component within than between root diameter classes. With 8% of the roots exceeding average Kp in their diameter class by 50-700%, we obtained evidence of the existence of 'high-conductivity roots' indicating functional differentiation among similar-sized roots. We conclude that the hydraulic properties of small to medium diameter roots of beech are mainly determined by root age, rendering root diameter a suitable predictor of hydraulic functioning, while soil depth - without referring to path length - had a negligible effect.
    Dokument ansehen Zusammenfassung
  • Zeitschriftenartikel

    Contribution of Jahn-Teller and charge transfer excitations to the photovoltaic effect of manganite/titanite heterojunctions 

    Ifland, Benedikt; Hoffmann, Joerg; Kressdorf, Birte; Roddatis, Vladimir; Seibt, Michael; Jooss, Christian
    New Journal of Physics 2017; 19(6): Art. 063046
    The effect of correlation effects on photovoltaic energy conversion at manganite/titanite heterojunctions is investigated. As a model system we choose a heterostructure consisting of the small polaron absorber Pr0.66Ca0.34MnO3 (PCMO) epitaxially grown on single-crystalline Nb-doped SrTi0.998Nb0.002O3 (STNO) substrates. The high structural and chemical quality of the interfaces is proved by detailed characterization using high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and electron energy loss spectroscopy (EELS) studies. Spectrally resolved and temperature-dependent photovoltaic measurements show pronounced contributions of both the Jahn-Teller (JT) excitations and the charge transfer (CT) transitions to the photovoltaic effect at different photon energies. A linear temperature dependence of the open-circuit voltage for an excitation in thePCMOmanganite is only observed below the charge-ordering temperature, indicating that the diffusion length of the photocarrier exceeds the size of the space charge region. The photovoltaic response is compared to that of a heterojunction of lightly doped Pr0.05Ca0.95MnO3 (CMO)/STNO, where the JT transition is absent. Here, significant contributions of the CTtransition to the photovoltaic effect set in below the Neel temperature.Weconclude that polaronic correlations and ordering effects are essentials for photovoltaic energy conversion in manganites.
    Dokument ansehen Zusammenfassung
  • Zeitschriftenartikel

    Does Tinnitus Depend on Time-of-Day? An Ecological Momentary Assessment Study with the “TrackYourTinnitus” Application 

    Probst, Thomas; Pryss, Rüdiger C.; Langguth, Berthold; Rauschecker, Josef P.; Schobel, Johannes; Reichert, Manfred; Spiliopoulou, Myra; Schlee, Winfried; Zimmermann, Johannes
    Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience 2017; 9: Art. 253
    Only few previous studies used ecological momentary assessments to explore the time-of-day-dependence of tinnitus. The present study used data from the mobile application “TrackYourTinnitus” to explore whether tinnitus loudness and tinnitus distress fluctuate within a 24-h interval. Multilevel models were performed to account for the nested structure of assessments (level 1: 17,209 daily life assessments) nested within days (level 2: 3,570 days with at least three completed assessments), and days nested within participants (level 3: 350 participants). Results revealed a time-of-day-dependence of tinnitus. In particular, tinnitus was perceived as louder and more distressing during the night and early morning hours (from 12 a.m. to 8 a.m.) than during the upcoming day. Since previous studies suggested that stress (and stress-associated hormones) show a circadian rhythm and this might influence the time-of-day-dependence of tinnitus, we evaluated whether the described results change when statistically controlling for subjectively reported stress-levels. Correcting for subjective stress-levels, however, did not change the result that tinnitus (loudness and distress) was most severe at night and early morning. These results show that time-of-day contributes to the level of both tinnitus loudness and tinnitus distress. Possible implications of our results for the clinical management of tinnitus are that tailoring the timing of therapeutic interventions to the circadian rhythm of individual patients (chronotherapy) might be promising.
    Dokument ansehen Zusammenfassung
  • Zeitschriftenartikel

    Sustainability, collapse and oscillations in a simple World-Earth model 

    Nitzbon, Jan; Heitzig, Jobst; Parlitz, Ulrich
    Environmental Research Letters 2017; 12(7): Art. 074020
    The Anthropocene is characterized by close interdependencies between the natural Earth system and the global human society, posing novel challenges to model development. Here we present a conceptual model describing the long-term co-evolution of natural and socio-economic subsystems of Earth. While the climate is represented via a global carbon cycle, we use economic concepts to model socio-metabolic flows of biomass and fossil fuels between nature and society. A well-being-dependent parametrization of fertility and mortality governs human population dynamics. Our analysis focuses on assessing possible asymptotic states of the Earth system for a qualitative understanding of its complex dynamics rather than quantitative predictions. Low dimension and simple equations enable a parameter-space analysis allowing us to identify preconditions of several asymptotic states and hence fates of humanity and planet. These include a sustainable co-evolution of nature and society, a global collapse and everlasting oscillations. We consider different scenarios corresponding to different socio-cultural stages of human history. The necessity of accounting for the ‘human factor’ in Earth system models is highlighted by the finding that carbon stocks during the past centuries evolved opposing to what would ‘naturally’ be expected on a planet without humans. The intensity of biomass use and the contribution of ecosystem services to human well-being are found to be crucial determinants of the asymptotic state in a (pre-industrial) biomass-only scenario without capital accumulation. The capitalistic, fossil-based scenario reveals that trajectories with fundamentally different asymptotic states might still be almost indistinguishable during even a centuries-long transient phase. Given current human population levels, our study also supports the claim that besides reducing the global demand for energy, only the extensive use of renewable energies may pave the way into a sustainable future.
    Dokument ansehen Zusammenfassung
  • Zeitschriftenartikel

    Making Fe0-Based Filters a Universal Solution for Safe Drinking Water Provision 

    Naseri, Elham; Ndé-Tchoupé, Arnaud; Mwakabona, Hezron; Nanseu-Njiki, Charles; Noubactep, Chicgoua; Njau, Karoli; Wydra, Kerstin
    Sustainability 2017; 9(7): Art. 1224
    Metallic iron (Fe0)-based filtration systems have the potential to significantly contribute to the achievement of the United Nations (UN) Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) of substantially improving the human condition by 2030 through the provision of clean water. Recent knowledge on Fe0-based safe drinking water filters is addressed herein. They are categorized into two types: Household and community filters. Design criteria are recalled and operational details are given. Scientists are invited to co-develop knowledge enabling the exploitation of the great potential of Fe0 filters for sustainable safe drinking water provision (and sanitation).
    Dokument ansehen Zusammenfassung
  • Zeitschriftenartikel

    Leaf and root litter decomposition is discontinued at high altitude tropical montane rainforests contributing to carbon sequestration 

    Marian, Franca; Sandmann, Dorothee; Krashevska, Valentyna; Maraun, Mark; Scheu, Stefan
    Ecology and Evolution p.1-12
    We investigated how altitude affects the decomposition of leaf and root litter in the Andean tropical montane rainforest of southern Ecuador, that is, through changes in the litter quality between altitudes or other site-specific differences in microenvironmental conditions. Leaf litter from three abundant tree species and roots of different diameter from sites at 1,000, 2,000, and 3,000 m were placed in litterbags and incubated for 6, 12, 24, 36, and 48 months. Environmental conditions at the three altitudes and the sampling time were the main factors driving litter decomposition, while origin, and therefore quality of the litter, was of minor importance. At 2,000 and 3,000 m decomposition of litter declined for 12 months reaching a limit value of ~50% of initial and not decomposing further for about 24 months. After 36 months, decomposition commenced at low rates resulting in an average of 37.9% and 44.4% of initial remaining after 48 months. In contrast, at 1,000 m decomposition continued for 48 months until only 10.9% of the initial litter mass remained. Changes in decomposition rates were paralleled by changes in microorganisms with microbial biomass decreasing after 24 months at 2,000 and 3,000 m, while varying little at 1,000 m. The results show that, irrespective of litter origin (1,000, 2,000, 3,000 m) and type (leaves, roots), unfavorable microenvironmental conditions at high altitudes inhibit decomposition processes resulting in the sequestration of carbon in thick organic layers.
    Dokument ansehen Zusammenfassung
  • Zeitschriftenartikel

    Five new species of Syzygium (Myrtaceae) from Sulawesi, Indonesia. 

    Brambach, Fabian; Byng, James W.; Culmsee, Heike
    PhytoKeys(81) p.47-78
    Following ongoing ecological research on the tree diversity of the Indonesian island of Sulawesi, we describe five new species of Syzygium. These are the first descriptions of Syzygium species from the island since Blume (1850, Jambosa celebica and J. cornifolia), highlighting the significant lack of taxonomic research on the genus for the region. The five species proposed as new are Syzygium balgooyisp. nov., Syzygium contiguumsp. nov., Syzygium devogeliisp. nov., Syzygium eymaesp. nov., and Syzygium galanthumsp. nov. All species are illustrated and information on their distribution, ecology, and conservation status is given.
    Dokument ansehen Zusammenfassung
  • Zeitschriftenartikel

    Neuroligins Nlg2 and Nlg4 Affect Social Behavior in Drosophila melanogaster 

    Corthals, Kristina; Heukamp, Alina Sophia; Kossen, Robert; Großhennig, Isabel; Hahn, Nina; Gras, Heribert; Göpfert, Martin C.; Heinrich, Ralf; Geurten, Bart R. H.
    Frontiers in Psychiatry 2017; 8
    The genome of Drosophila melanogaster includes homologs to approximately one-third of the currently known human disease genes. Flies and humans share many biological processes, including the principles of information processing by excitable neurons, synaptic transmission, and the chemical signals involved in intercellular communication. Studies on the molecular and behavioral impact of genetic risk factors of human neuro- developmental disorders [autism spectrum disorders (ASDs), schizophrenia, attention deficit hyperactivity disorders, and Tourette syndrome] increasingly use the well-studied social behavior of D. melanogaster, an organism that is amenable to a large variety of genetic manipulations. Neuroligins (Nlgs) are a family of phylogenetically conserved postsynaptic adhesion molecules present (among others) in nematodes, insects, and mammals. Impaired function of Nlgs (particularly of Nlg 3 and 4) has been associated with ASDs in humans and impaired social and communication behavior in mice. Making use of a set of behavioral and social assays, we, here, analyzed the impact of two Drosophila Nlgs, Dnlg2 and Dnlg4, which are differentially expressed at excitatory and inhibitory central nervous synapses, respectively. Both Nlgs seem to be associated with diurnal activity and social behavior. Even though deficiencies in Dnlg2 and Dnlg4 appeared to have no effects on sensory or motor systems, they differentially impacted on social interactions, suggesting that social behavior is distinctly regulated by these Nlgs.
    Dokument ansehen Zusammenfassung
  • Zeitschriftenartikel

    Comparison of Multiple Linear Regression, Cubist Regression, and Random Forest Algorithms to Estimate Daily Air Surface Temperature from Dynamic Combinations of MODIS LST Data 

    Noi, Phan; Degener, Jan; Kappas, Martin
    Remote Sensing 2017; 9(5): Art. 398
    Recently, several methods have been introduced and applied to estimate daily air surface temperature (Ta) using MODIS land surface temperature data (MODIS LST). Among these methods, the most common used method is statistical modeling, and the most applied algorithms are linear/multiple linear regression models (LM). There are only a handful of studies using machine learning algorithm models such as random forest (RF) or cubist regression (CB). In particular, there is no study comparing different combinations of four MODIS LST datasets with or without auxiliary data using different algorithms such as multiple linear regression, random forest, and cubist regression for daily Ta-max, Ta-min, and Ta-mean estimation. Our study examines the mentioned combinations of four MODIS-LST datasets and shows that different combinations and differently applied algorithms produce various Ta estimation accuracies. Additional analysis of daily data from three climate stations in the mountain area of North West of Vietnam for the period of five years (2009 to 2013) with four MODIS LST datasets (AQUA daytime, AQUA nighttime, TERRA daytime, and TERRA nighttime) and two additional auxiliary datasets (elevation and Julian day) shows that CB and LM should be applied if MODIS LST data is used solely. If MODIS LST is used together with auxiliary data, especially in mountainous areas, CB or RF is highly recommended. This study proved that the very high accuracy of Ta estimation (R2 > 0.93/0.80/0.89 and RMSE ~1.5/2.0/1.6 C of Ta-max, Ta-min, and Ta-mean, respectively) could be achieved with a simple combination of four LST data, elevation, and Julian day data using a suitable algorithm.
    Dokument ansehen Zusammenfassung
  • Zeitschriftenartikel

    Estimating utilization distributions from fitted step-selection functions 

    Signer, Johannes; Fieberg, John; Avgar, Tal
    Ecosphere 2017; 8(4): Art. e01771
    Habitat-selection analyses are often used to link environmental covariates, measured within some spatial domain of assumed availability, to animal location data that are assumed to be independent. Step-selection functions (SSFs) relax this independence assumption, by using a conditional model that explicitly acknowledges the spatiotemporal dynamics of the availability domain and hence the temporal dependence among successive locations. However, it is not clear how to produce an SSF-based map of the expected utilization distribution. Here, we used SSFs to analyze virtual animal movement data generated at a fine spatiotemporal scale and then rarefied to emulate realistic telemetry data. We then compared two different approaches for generating maps from the estimated regression coefficients. First, we considered a na€ıve approach that used the coefficients as if they were obtained by fitting an unconditional model. Second, we explored a simulation-based approach, where maps were generated using stochastic simulations of the parameterized step-selection process. We found that the simulation-based approach always outperformed the na€ıve mapping approach and that the latter overestimated home-range size and underestimated local space-use variability. Differences between the approaches were greatest for complex landscapes and high sampling rates, suggesting that the simulation-based approach, despite its added complexity, is likely to offer significant advantages when applying SSFs to real data.
    Dokument ansehen Zusammenfassung
  • Zeitschriftenartikel

    Measurement of the cross section for inclusive isolated-photon production in ppcollisions at √s=13TeVusing the ATLAS detector 

    Aaboud, M. et al. (ATLAS Collaboration)
    Physics Letters B p.473-493
    Inclusive isolated-photon production in ppcollisions at a centre-of-mass energy of 13TeVis studied with the ATLAS detector at the LHC using a data set with an integrated luminosity of 3.2fb−1. The cross section is measured as a function of the photon transverse energy above 125GeVin different regions of photon pseudorapidity. Next-to-leading-order perturbative QCD and Monte Carlo event-generator predictions are compared to the cross-section measurements and provide an adequate description of the data.
    Dokument ansehen Zusammenfassung
  • Zeitschriftenartikel

    Measurements of top quark spin observables in tt¯ events using dilepton final states in s√=8 TeV pp collisions with the ATLAS detector 

    Aaboud, M. et al. (ATLAS Collaboration)
    Journal of High Energy Physics 2017; 2017: Art. 113
    Measurements of top quark spin observables in tt¯ events are presented based on 20.2 fb−1 of s√=8 TeV proton-proton collisions recorded with the ATLAS detector at the LHC. The analysis is performed in the dilepton final state, characterised by the presence of two isolated leptons (electrons or muons). There are 15 observables, each sensitive to a different coefficient of the spin density matrix of tt¯ production, which are measured independently. Ten of these observables are measured for the first time. All of them are corrected for detector resolution and acceptance effects back to the parton and stable-particle levels. The measured values of the observables at parton level are compared to Standard Model predictions at next-to-leading order in QCD. The corrected distributions at stable-particle level are presented and the means of the distributions are compared to Monte Carlo predictions. No significant deviation from the Standard Model is observed for any observable.
    Dokument ansehen Zusammenfassung
  • Zeitschriftenartikel

    Measurements of top-quark pair differential cross-sections in the eμ channel in pp collisions at √ s = 13 TeV using the ATLAS detector 

    Aaboud, M. et al. (ATLAS Collaboration)
    The European Physical Journal C 2017; 77: Art. 292
    This article presents measurements of t ¯t differential cross-sections in a fiducial phase-space region, using an integrated luminosity of 3.2 fb−1 of proton–proton data at a centre-of-mass energy of √s = 13 TeV recorded by the ATLAS experiment at the LHC in 2015. Differential crosssections are measured as a function of the transverse momentum and absolute rapidity of the top quark, and of the transverse momentum, absolute rapidity and invariant mass of the t ¯t system. The t ¯t events are selected by requiring one electron and onemuonof opposite electric charge, and at least two jets, one of which must be tagged as containing a b-hadron. The measured differential cross-sections are compared to predictions of next-to-leading order generators matched to parton showers and the measurements are found to be consistent with all models within the experimental uncertainties with the exception of the Powheg-Box + Herwig++ predictions, which differ significantly from the data in both the transverse momentum of the top quark and the mass of the t ¯t system.
    Dokument ansehen Zusammenfassung
  • Zeitschriftenartikel

    Measurement of the prompt J/ψ pair production cross-section in pp collisions at √ s = 8 TeV with the ATLAS detector 

    Aaboud, M. et al. (ATLAS Collaboration)
    The European Physical Journal C 2017; 77: Art. 76
    The production of two prompt J/ψ mesons, each with transverse momenta pT > 8.5 GeV and rapidity |y| < 2√.1, is studied using a sample of proton-proton collisions at s = 8 TeV, corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 11.4 fb−1 collected in 2012 with the ATLAS detector at the LHC. The differential cross-section, assuming unpolarised J/ψ production, is measured as a function of the transverse momentum of the lower-pT J/ψ meson, di-J/ψ pT and mass, the difference in rapidity between the two J/ψ mesons, and the azimuthal angle between the two J/ψ mesons. The fraction of prompt pair events due to double parton scattering is determined by studying kinematic correlations between the two J/ψ mesons. The total and double parton scattering cross-sections are compared with predictions. The effective cross-section of double parton scattering is measured to be σeff = 6.3 ± 1.6(stat) ± 1.0(syst) mb.
    Dokument ansehen Zusammenfassung
  • Zeitschriftenartikel

    Precision measurement and interpretation of inclusive W+, W− and Z/γ ∗ production cross sections with the ATLAS detector 

    Aaboud, M. et al. (ATLAS Collaboration)
    The European Physical Journal C 2017; 77: Art. 367
    High-precision measurements by the ATLAS Collaboration are presented of inclusive W+ → + ν, W− → −¯ν and Z/γ ∗ → ( = e,μ) Drell–Yan production cross sections at the LHC. The data were collected in proton–proton collisions at √ s = 7 TeV with an integrated luminosity of 4.6 fb−1. Differential W+ and W− cross sections are measured in a lepton pseudorapidity range |η | < 2.5. Differential Z/γ ∗ cross sections are measured as a function of the absolute dilepton rapidity, for |y | < 3.6, for three intervals of dilepton mass, m , extending from 46 to 150 GeV. The integrated and differential electron- and muon-channel cross sections are combined and compared to theoretical predictions using recent sets of parton distribution functions. The data, together with the final inclusive e± p scattering cross-section data from H1 and ZEUS, are interpreted in a next-to-next-to-leading-order QCD analysis, and a new set of parton distribution functions, ATLAS-epWZ16, is obtained. The ratio of strange-to-light sea-quark densities in the proton is determined more accurately than in previous determinations based on collider data only, and is established to be close to unity in the sensitivity range of the data. A new measurement of the CKM matrix element |Vcs | is also provided.
    Dokument ansehen Zusammenfassung
  • Zeitschriftenartikel

    Measurement of the W boson polarisation in t ¯t events from pp collisions at √ s = 8 TeV in the lepton + jets channel with ATLAS 

    Aaboud, M. et al. (ATLAS Collaboration)
    The European Physical Journal C 2017; 77: Art. 264
    This paper presents a measurement of the polarisation of W bosons from t ¯t decays, reconstructed in events with one high-pT lepton and at least four jets. Data from pp collisions at the LHC were collected at √s = 8 TeV and correspond to an integrated luminosity of 20.2 fb−1. The angle θ ∗ between the b-quark from the top quark decay and a direct W boson decay product in theW boson rest frame is sensitive to theW boson polarisation. Two differentW decay products are used as polarisation analysers: the charged lepton and the down-type quark for the leptonically and hadronically decaying W boson, respectively. The most precise measurement of the W boson polarisation via the distribution of cos θ ∗ is obtained using the leptonic analyser and events in which at least two of the jets are tagged as b-quark jets. The fitted fractions of longitudinal, left- and right-handed polarisation states are F0 = 0.709 ± 0.019, FL = 0.299 ± 0.015 and FR = −0.008 ± 0.014, and are the most precisely measured W boson polarisation fractions to date. Limits on anomalous couplings of the Wtb vertex are set.
    Dokument ansehen Zusammenfassung
  • Zeitschriftenartikel

    Soil nitrogen oxide fluxes from lowland forests converted to smallholder rubber and oil palm plantations in Sumatra, Indonesia 

    Hassler, Evelyn; Corre, Marife D.; Kurniawan, Syahrul; Veldkamp, Edzo
    Biogeosciences 2017; 14(11) p.2781-2798
    Oil palm (Elaeis guineensis) and rubber (Hevea brasiliensis) plantations cover large areas of former rainforest in Sumatra, Indonesia, supplying the global demand for these crops. Although forest conversion is known to influence soil nitrous oxide (N2O) and nitric oxide (NO) fluxes, measurements from oil palm and rubber plantations are scarce (for N2O) or nonexistent (for NO). Our study aimed to (1) quantify changes in soil–atmosphere fluxes of N oxides with forest conversion to rubber and oil palm plantations and (2) determine their controlling factors. In Jambi, Sumatra, we selected two landscapes that mainly differed in texture but were both on heavily weathered soils: loam and clay Acrisol soils. Within each landscape, we investigated lowland forests, rubber trees interspersed in secondary forest (termed as "jungle rubber"), both as reference land uses and smallholder rubber and oil palm plantations as converted land uses. In the loam Acrisol landscape, we conducted a follow-on study in a large-scale oil palm plantation (called PTPN VI) for comparison of soil N2O fluxes with smallholder oil palm plantations. Land-use conversion to smallholder plantations had no effect on soil N-oxide fluxes (P = 0. 58 to 0.76) due to the generally low soil N availability in the reference land uses that further decreased with land-use conversion. Soil N2O fluxes from the large-scale oil palm plantation did not differ with those from smallholder plantations (P = 0. 15). Over 1-year measurements, the temporal patterns of soil N-oxide fluxes were influenced by soil mineral N and water contents. Across landscapes, annual soil N2O emissions were controlled by gross nitrification and sand content, which also suggest the influence of soil N and water availability. Soil N2O fluxes (µg N m−2 h−1) were 7 ± 2 to 14 ± 7 (reference land uses), 6 ± 3 to 9 ± 2 (rubber), 12 ± 3 to 12 ± 6 (smallholder oil palm) and 42 ± 24 (large-scale oil palm). Soil NO fluxes (µg N m−2 h−1) were −0.6 ± 0.7 to 5.7 ± 5.8 (reference land uses), −1.2 ± 0.5 to −1.0 ± 0.2 (rubber) and −0.2 ± 1.2 to 0.7 ± 0.7 (smallholder oil palm). To improve the estimate of soil N-oxide fluxes from oil palm plantations in this region, studies should focus on large-scale plantations (which usually have 2 to 4 times higher N fertilization rates than smallholders) with frequent measurements following fertilizer application.
    Dokument ansehen Zusammenfassung
  • Zeitschriftenartikel

    Tuning Selectivity of Fluorescent Carbon Nanotube-Based Neurotransmitter Sensors. 

    Mann, Florian A.; Herrmann, Niklas; Meyer, Daniel; Kruss, Sebastian
    Sensors (Basel, Switzerland) 2017-06-28; 17(7): Art. 1521
    Detection of neurotransmitters is an analytical challenge and essential to understand neuronal networks in the brain and associated diseases. However, most methods do not provide sufficient spatial, temporal, or chemical resolution. Near-infrared (NIR) fluorescent single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) have been used as building blocks for sensors/probes that detect catecholamine neurotransmitters, including dopamine. This approach provides a high spatial and temporal resolution, but it is not understood if these sensors are able to distinguish dopamine from similar catecholamine neurotransmitters, such as epinephrine or norepinephrine. In this work, the organic phase (DNA sequence) around SWCNTs was varied to create sensors with different selectivity and sensitivity for catecholamine neurotransmitters. Most DNA-functionalized SWCNTs responded to catecholamine neurotransmitters, but both dissociation constants (Kd) and limits of detection were highly dependent on functionalization (sequence). Kd values span a range of 2.3 nM (SWCNT-(GC)15 + norepinephrine) to 9.4 μM (SWCNT-(AT)15 + dopamine) and limits of detection are mostly in the single-digit nM regime. Additionally, sensors of different SWCNT chirality show different fluorescence increases. Moreover, certain sensors (e.g., SWCNT-(GT)10) distinguish between different catecholamines, such as dopamine and norepinephrine at low concentrations (50 nM). These results show that SWCNTs functionalized with certain DNA sequences are able to discriminate between catecholamine neurotransmitters or to detect them in the presence of interfering substances of similar structure. Such sensors will be useful to measure and study neurotransmitter signaling in complex biological settings.
    Dokument ansehen Zusammenfassung
  • Zeitschriftenartikel

    The impact of personal relevance on emotion processing: Evidence from event-related potentials and pupillary responses. 

    Bayer, Mareike; Ruthmann, Katja; Schacht, Annekathrin
    Social cognitive and affective neuroscience p.1-10
    Emotional stimuli attract attention and lead to increased activity in the visual cortex. The present study investigated the impact of personal relevance on emotion processing by presenting emotional words within sentences that referred to participants' significant others or to unknown agents. In event-related potentials, personal relevance increased visual cortex activity within 100 ms after stimulus onset and the amplitudes of the Late Positive Complex (LPC). Moreover, personally relevant contexts gave rise to augmented pupillary responses and higher arousal ratings, suggesting a general boost of attention and arousal. Finally, personal relevance increased emotion-related ERP effects starting around 200 ms after word onset, effects for negative words compared to neutral words were prolonged in duration. Source localizations of these interactions revealed activations in prefrontal regions, in the visual cortex and in the fusiform gyrus. Taken together, these results demonstrate the high impact of personal relevance on reading in general and on emotion processing in particular.
    Dokument ansehen Zusammenfassung

View more