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  • Zeitschriftenartikel

    Return-To-Play Decision Making in Team Sports Athletes. A Quasi-Naturalistic Scenario Study 

    Mayer, Jochen; Burgess, Stephanie; Thiel, Ansgar
    Frontiers in Psychology 2020; 11 p.1-14: Art. 1020
    Competitive athletes act within cultures of risk in sports and often decide to return to sport despite having acute health problems. The outcomes of such risky return-to-play decisions can not only negatively affect their future health, but may also limit their sports performance or even upset their career paths. Following risk-management-decision theory with its focus on active risk defusing, we developed a model for understanding the process of return-to-play decision making from an athlete’s perspective. Based on the method of active information search, a quasi-naturalistic return-to-play decision scenario was created in order to assess amateur team sport athletes’ decision-making strategies. The main goals were to identify different information acquisition patterns and to analyze the influence of varying sporting consequences on decision making. A total of 72 competitive team sport athletes (36 females, 36 males, m = 25.7 years of age, 3rd to 6th league level) from three disciplines (volleyball, basketball, and handball) participated in the experimental study. Facing the same medical scenario (a partial tear of the supraspinatus tendon), athletes show different approaches to return-to-play decision making. The main focus is on the potential sporting consequences of withdrawal from competition due to injury, with only a few players favoring well-informed decisions based on thorough risk analysis. The athletes who chose the medically risky alternative to play hurt mostly employed strategies of active risk defusing, which got activated when severe sporting consequences were perceived. Those who chose to withdraw from competition primarily referred to maximin heuristic, particularly when social pressure to play was reduced. The findings can be used to improve rehabilitation-related communication and shared return-to-play decision making in sports.
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    Human rights in countries of origin and the mental health of migrants to Canada 

    Joly, Marie-Pier; Wheaton, Blair
    SSM - Population Health 2020; 11 p.1-10: Art. 100571
    This study explores the effect of human rights violations in countries of origin on migrants’ mental health, using archival data on human rights violations from 1970-2011, merged to a representative probability sample of 2412 adults living in a large Canadian metropolitan area. The context of exit is defined at the country level, as opposed to self-reported individual experiences of trauma. While most studies start from a question about direct exposure to human rights violations, they may miss the effect of the national-level social context - threat, instability, disruption of lives, and uncertainty - on mental health. Findings indicate that high levels of human rights violations in countries of origin have long-term effects on migrants’ mental health. The impact of human rights violations is substantially explained by the combined effect of stressors both before and after migration, suggesting a cumulative process of stress proliferation following this context of exit.
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  • Zeitschriftenartikel

    Making Cultural Heritage Claims on Profitable Land: The Case of the Ngassa Wells in Uganda’s Oil Region: Kontroverse um kulturelles Erbe auf lukrativem Land: Der Fall der Ngassa-Bohrlöcher in Ugandas Ölregion 

    Nakayi, Rose; Witte, Annika
    Africa Spectrum 2020; 54(3) p.222-243
    In the exploration phase of Uganda’s oil project, controversy arose regarding the drilling of wells on the grounds of important shrines of spirits of the adjacent Lake Albert. While the oil companies and the state looked at the market value of the land, the claimants emphasised its cultural heritage value, building a link to an international heritage discussion. This article argues that, while they have been barred from political influence on the oil project, cultural institutions such as the Bunyoro Kingdom and the claimants in the village near the controversial well used cultural heritage as a vantage point to get their voices heard and to gain negotiating power in the project. The article shows how widening of the definition of cultural heritage – which means dropping a bias for built infrastructure – has put culture alongside politics, economics, and the environment as an important factor to consider in extractive projects.
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  • Zeitschriftenartikel

    Legitimacy and the Cognitive Sources of International Institutional Change: The Case of Regional Parliamentarization 

    Lenz, Tobias; Burilkov, Alexandr; Viola, Lora Anne
    International Studies Quarterly 2019; 63(4) p.1094-1107
    How and under what conditions does legitimacy affect processes of international institutional change? This article specifiesand evaluates three causal mechanisms by which variation in legitimacy induces institutional change in international organi-zations (IOs) and argues that an important, yet hitherto neglected, source of legitimacy-based change is cognitive in nature.Using survival analysis, we evaluate these mechanisms with a novel dataset on the establishment of parliamentary institutionsin thirty-six regional organizations between 1950 and 2010. We find that the empowerment of supranational secretariats, en-gagement with the European Union, and parliamentarization in an organization’s neighborhood increase the likelihood ofregional parliamentarization. This suggests that legitimacy judgments that draw on cognitive referents provide an importantsource of international institutional change. We illustrate the underlying cognitive emulation mechanism with a case study ofparliamentarization in the Association of Southeast Asian Nations.
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  • Zeitschriftenartikel

    Equality prescribed? Contextual determinants of citizens’ support for gender boardroom quotas across Europe 

    Möhring, Katja; Teney, Céline
    Comparative European Politics
    We provide the first cross-national comparative study of citizens’ support for affirmative action policies in the economy using the example of gender quotas for company boards. In contrast to previous studies, we focus on the contextual level and analyse how factors related to political institutions and actors, and economic and social structure shape citizens’ support and the gap in support between men and women. We apply multilevel regression analyses of Eurobarometer data for 27 European countries. Levels of support and gender gaps in support for boardroom quotas vary largely between countries. Contextual factors related to existing quota laws, gender equality in social and economic life, and public opinion towards state intervention are important determinants of cross-national variation. Our results point to an ambiguous relationship of support for gender quotas and actual gender equality in a country. Citizens’ endorsement of quotas is low in countries with high levels of formal gender equality. Support is higher in countries where interventionist policies are widely accepted. Also, existing quota laws are positively related to citizens’ support of boardroom quotas.
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  • Zeitschriftenartikel

    Legitimacy and institutional change in international organisations: a cognitive approach 

    Lenz, Tobias; Viola, Lora Anne
    Review of International Studies 2017; 43(5) p.939-961
    Why are some institutional designs perceived as more legitimate than others, and why is the same institutional design sometimes perceived as legitimacy-enhancing in one setting and not in another? In a world in which most international organisations (IOs) do not fully embody societal values and norms, such as democratic participation and equal treatment, why do legitimacy deficits in some organisations lead to pressure for institutional change while in others they are tolerated? These are important questions given that many analysts have diagnosed a ‘legitimacy crisis’ of IOs, but we argue that existing approaches are ill equipped to answer them. We show that the existing legitimacy literature has an implicit model of institutional change – the congruence model – but that this model has difficulty accounting for important patterns of change and non-change because it lacks microfoundations. We argue that attributions of legitimacy rest on perceptions and this implies the need to investigate the cognitive bases of legitimacy. We introduce a cognitive model of legitimacy and deduce a set of testable propositions to explain the conditions under which legitimacy judgments change and, in turn, produce pressures for institutional change in IOs.
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  • Zeitschriftenartikel

    Students and society in the 2020s. Three future ‘histories’ of education and technology 

    Macgilchrist, Felicitas; Allert, Heidrun; Bruch, Anne
    Learning, Media and Technology p.1-14
    As social science fiction, this paper imagines three possible futures for education and technology. Among the most important technologies emerging today are data-aggregating technologies such as AI, affective computing, adaptive or predictive software, clouds and platforms. The paper is not, however, directed at specific technologies, but at indeterminate sociotechnical configurations. Set in 2040, it offers three ‘histories’ of the 2020s. Might students become (i) ‘smooth users’, improving themselves in the pursuit of frictionless efficiency within a post-democratic frame created by large corporations, (ii) ‘digital nomads’, seeking freedom, individualism and aesthetic joy as solopreneurs exploiting state regulations and algorithmic rules while stepping out of the state and deeply into the capitalist new economy, or (iii) participatory, democratic, ecological humans embedded in ‘collective agency’ that see institutions as spaces for exploring more equitable ways of living? The paper reflects on the future research and the political, educational and technological decisions which would make each of these three fictional future histories more or less likely.
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  • Zeitschriftenartikel

    Institutional pioneers in world politics: Regional institution building and the influence of the European Union 

    Lenz, Tobias; Burilkov, Alexandr
    European Journal of International Relations 2017; 23(3) p.654-680
    What drives processes of institution building within regional international organizations? We challenge those established theories of regionalism, and of institutionalized cooperation more broadly, that treat different organizations as independent phenomena whose evolution is conditioned primarily by internal causal factors. Developing the basic premise of ‘diffusion theory’ — meaning that decision-making is interdependent across organizations — we argue that institutional pioneers, and specifically the European Union, shape regional institution-building processes in a number of discernible ways. We then hypothesize two pathways — active and passive — of European Union influence, and stipulate an endogenous capacity for institutional change as a key scope condition for their operation. Drawing on a new and original data set on the institutional design of 34 regional international organizations in the period from 1950 to 2010, the article finds that: (1) both the intensity of a regional international organization’s structured interaction with the European Union (active influence) and the European Union’s own level of delegation (passive influence) are associated with higher levels of delegation within other regional international organizations; (2) passive European Union influence exerts a larger overall substantive effect than active European Union influence does; and (3) these effects are strongest among those regional international organizations that are based on founding contracts containing open-ended commitments. These findings indicate that the creation and subsequent institutional evolution of the European Union has made a difference to the evolution of institutions in regional international organizations elsewhere, thereby suggesting that existing theories of regionalism are insufficiently able to account for processes of institution building in such contexts.
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  • Zeitschriftenartikel

    Puangthong R. Pawakapan, State and Uncivil Society in Thailand at the Temple of Preah Vihear. Singapore: ISEAS, 2013, 124 pp. ISBN 9789814459907. Price: USD 19.90 (paperback). 

    Hauser-Schäublin, Brigitta
    Bijdragen tot de taal-, land- en volkenkunde / Journal of the Humanities and Social Sciences of Southeast Asia 2013; 170(4) p.597-598
    not available
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    A review of the ecosystem functions in oil palm plantations, using forests as a reference system 

    Dislich, Claudia; Keyel, Alexander C.; Salecker, Jan; Kisel, Yael; Meyer, Katrin M.; Auliya, Mark; Barnes, Andrew D.; Corre, Marife D.; Darras, Kevin; Faust, Heiko; et al.
    Hess, BastianKlasen, StephanKnohl, AlexanderKreft, HolgerMeijide, AnaNurdiansyah, FuadOtten, FennaPe'er, GuySteinebach, StefanieTarigan, SuriaTölle, Merja H.Tscharntke, TejaWiegand, Kerstin
    Biological Reviews
    Oil palm plantations have expanded rapidly in recent decades. This large-scale land-use change has had great ecological, economic, and social impacts on both the areas converted to oil palm and their surroundings. However, research on the impacts of oil palm cultivation is scattered and patchy, and no clear overview exists. We address this gap through a systematic and comprehensive literature review of all ecosystem functions in oil palm plantations, including several (genetic, medicinal and ornamental resources, information functions) not included in previous systematic reviews. We compare ecosystem functions in oil palm plantations to those in forests, as the conversion of forest to oil palm is prevalent in the tropics. We find that oil palm plantations generally have reduced ecosystem functioning compared to forests: 11 out of 14 ecosystem functions show a net decrease in level of function. Some functions show decreases with potentially irreversible global impacts (e.g. reductions in gas and climate regulation, habitat and nursery functions, genetic resources, medicinal resources, and information functions). The most serious impacts occur when forest is cleared to establish new plantations, and immediately afterwards, especially on peat soils. To variable degrees, specific plantation management measures can prevent or reduce losses of some ecosystem functions (e.g. avoid illegal land clearing via fire, avoid draining of peat, use of integrated pest management, use of cover crops, mulch, and compost) and we highlight synergistic mitigation measures that can improve multiple ecosystem functions simultaneously. The only ecosystem function which increases in oil palm plantations is, unsurprisingly, the production of marketable goods. Our review highlights numerous research gaps. In particular, there are significant gaps with respect to socio-cultural information functions. Further, there is a need for more empirical data on the importance of spatial and temporal scales, such as differences among plantations in different environments, of different sizes, and of different ages, as our review has identified examples where ecosystem functions vary spatially and temporally. Finally, more research is needed on developing management practices that can offset the losses of ecosystem functions. Our findings should stimulate research to address the identified gaps, and provide a foundation for more systematic research and discussion on ways to minimize the negative impacts and maximize the positive impacts of oil palm cultivation.
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  • Zeitschriftenartikel

    Religion and new immigrants' labor market entry in Western Europe 

    Koenig, M.; Maliepaard, M.; Gu veli, A.
    Ethnicities 2016; 16(2) p.213-235
    This paper analyzes the effects of religious participation upon a major socio-economic integration outcome, namely employment, among recent Christian and Muslim newcomers in three Western European destination countries: Germany, the Netherlands, and Great Britain. The paper revisits theoretical arguments about religious participation as an ethnic investment strategy or, alternatively, as a bridge to the societal mainstream. Drawing on the longitudinal dataset produced in the international survey project on ‘Socio-cultural Integration Processes among New Immigrants in Europe’ (SCIP), the paper puts these arguments to a rigorous test by analyzing effects of involvement in religious communities on employment and by scrutinizing channeling effects of the ethnic composition of religious congregations for recent migrants’ entry into mainstream versus ethnic niche economies. The paper finds only limited support for either of the two arguments, suggesting that religious participation is structurally decoupled from socio-economic integration. However, persisting net employment gaps between recent Christian and Muslim immigrants might indicate the existence of religiously marked and socio-economically consequential boundaries in Western Europe.
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  • Zeitschriftenartikel

    Do second-generation Turkish migrants in Germany assimilate into the middle class? 

    Hartmann, J.
    Ethnicities 2014; 16(3) p.368-392
    The understanding of career paths of migrants is crucial for gaining deeper insights into assimilation processes. However, previous studies in Germany have paid little attention to middle-class assimilation and the career sequences of the second generation of migrants. This paper focuses on early employment career patterns of the children of guest workers, both men and women and especially those of Turkish origin, in comparison to native Germans. Using the German Socioeconomic Panel data set, I apply sequence analysis and regression analysis techniques to describe and assess differences in their success of middle-class assimilation in early employment careers. The findings are robust for two unique definitions of holding a middle-class position, and suggest that large differences exist between native-born Germans and second-generation Turks, and especially between second-generation Turkish women and native German women. The results for second-generation Turkish men indicate that their differences can be explained entirely by education. In the case of second-generation Turkish women, the causes for their disadvantage are more complex and include their lower education, language skills, and host-country-specific social capital as well as group-specific penalties for marriage and childbirth.
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    Fissures in the discourse-scape: Critique, rationality and validity in post-foundational approaches to CDS 

    Macgilchrist, Felicitas
    Discourse & Society 2016; 27(3) p.262-277
    This article explores one challenge facing critical discourse studies (CDS) in today’s mediatised world: the ontological and epistemological assumptions which prompt studies to analyse the construction of social orders (such as right-wing, racist or neoliberal orders) rather than the fissures and dislocations of these social orders. The former foregrounds stability, and the latter foregrounds instability. In this article, I first sketch postfoundational thinking, arguing that this thinking brings breakdown, disruption and instability to the centre of attention. Although postfoundational thought is most prominently associated with a particular set of thinkers (Nancy, Lefort, Laclau and Rancière), I also include approaches often omitted from current discussions (Lather, Haraway, Malabou and Sedgwick). Second, I consider three central concepts in CDS from a postfoundational perspective: critique, rationality and validity. Critique is conceptualised as a generative criticality which addresses unequal power relations through (fine-grained) analysis of hope-giving, reparative discourse which is oriented to well-being. Rationality is positioned as mobile, contingent, political and positioned, rather than universal and non-subjective. Validity is separated from understandings of objectivity and bias and associated instead with surprise and transgressive validities. Finally, two brief examples illustrate how postfoundational approaches to discourse have engaged with reframing social movements and democracy and rethinking what counts as the economy.
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  • Monografie

    Ceremonial houses of the Abelam-Papua New Guinea 

    Hauser-Schäublin, Brigitta
    Crawford House Publishing [Printausgabe]GoeScholar [Online-Ausgabe]: Goolwa, S.A. [Printausgabe], 2016
    The ceremonial houses of the Abelam people (East Sepik Province, Papua New Guinea) rank as architectural masterpieces. The impressive buildings with their richly painted façade are built on a triangular ground plan. They often reached heights of up to 30 metres, towering above even the tallest coconut palms. They were constructed completely without nails, all elements being held together with the aid of vines and liana ropes; they were built by communal labour and reflected the strength of the respective community. Outside the ceremonial cycle they served as repositories for sacred carvings but during initiations they became the place of stupendous ritual installations. The novices entered the house through a low, tunnel-like entrance before they were confronted with dramatically staged cult images inside. Following this revelation they were led out through a narrow exit at the back on to a small, hidden ceremonial ground where they remained in seclusion for several weeks. Up to the mid-1980s, knowledge concerning the construction and meaning of ceremonial houses was passed on to the next generation by means of practice (learning by doing). However, since then the Abelam have converted to Christianity and turned their backs on traditional belief and knowledge: they no longer build ceremonial houses and initiations are a matter of the past. This book is part of the author’s Habilitationsschrift originally published in German in 1989. She presents an extensive description and analysis of Abelam society at a time when the people were still building ceremonial houses, staging initiations and sacrificing pigs. Thus, this work presents a cultural record of what on longer exists.
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  • Zeitschriftenartikel

    VALORISATION OF NGOS’ EXISTENCE IN CAMEROON: OPTION FOR A MORE ENGAGED CIVIL SOCIETY (VNEC-OECS) 

    Abia, Wilfred A.; Nchanji, Eileen Bogweh; Markjovert, Ageh; Abia, Eucharia A.
    International Journal of Non-Governmental Organizations (NGOs) and Essays 2016; 1(1) p.1-17
    Non-governmental organizations (NGO) have become quite prominent in the field of international development in recent decades. Even though, NGO have taken the centre stage in the fight against poverty, social injustice and human rights most are considered weak due to their dependence on funding from government and international aid bodies. This research activity highlights the probable values and weaknesses plaguing the civil society in Cameroon. Due to the pressures of obtaining and maintaining funding, less effort is placed on management leading to a lack of accountability and inefficiency in services offered to the public. The absence of a common platform for NGO makes coordination of their activities unrealistic. In our discussion we intend to propose ways by which NGOs can synergize their action plans. The paper will end by highlighting the distance NGOs have covered as development actors in Cameroon with recommendations deduced to valorise NGOs existence in Cameroon.
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  • Zeitschriftenartikel

    Action and attitudes matter: International public opinion towards the European Union 

    Schlipphak, Bernd
    European Union Politics 2013; 14(4) p.590-618
    Descriptive studies on the European Union’s global image reveal generally favourable feelings towards the European Union on the part of citizens outside Europe. However, European Union perceptions vary considerably across countries. This article argues that these patterns can be analytically explained by taking context and individual factors into account. European Union behaviour and an individual’s supranationalist attitude should exert a substantial impact on citizens’ feelings. A multi-level model confirms the expect- ations. These findings imply practically that the behaviour of the European Union and other International Organizations shapes public opinion and that it might, in the future, negatively influence global public opinion towards the European Union.
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  • Zeitschriftenartikel

    Sex and Gender Discrimination Within Eu Pension Systems 

    Leitner, Sigrid
    Journal of European Social Policy 2001; 11(2) p.99-115
    Drawing on the philosophical differentiation between sex and gender, this article focuses on structural mechanisms of gender discrimination within European pension systems. For this purpose, the article distinguishes between two dimensions of the gender category: the work behaviour dimension and the care dimension. It is argued that the differentiation between employment and family work on the one hand and specific living arrangements on the other is structurally implemented within old age security systems. All countries have established earnings-related schemes which, to various extents, refer to former earnings and continuous working careers. Many of the earnings-related schemes incorporate family work in one way or another by granting entitlement for the care of children and/or elderly or handicapped people. Most of the schemes are combined with additional benefits for spouses and/or survivors, referring to married heterosexual couples. Only a few countries have additionally established universal pension schemes based on residence instead of employment or family work. The comparative analysis of pension systems in the 15 EU member states gives an idea about national varieties of structural gender differentiation.
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  • Zeitschriftenartikel

    Limits of the Division of Labour. New Production and Employment Concepts in West German Industry 

    Kern, Horst; Schumann, Michael
    Economic and Industrial Democracy 1987; 8(2) p.151-170
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  • Zeitschriftenartikel

    The euro area's common default risk: Evidence on the Commission's impact on European fiscal affairs 

    Goldbach, Roman; Fahrholz, Christian
    European Union Politics 2011; 12(4) p.507-528
    Sovereign creditworthiness within the euro area hinges upon the credibility of the Stability and Growth Pact (SGP). We analyse whether political events that worsen the SGP’s credibility result in a shared default risk premium for all euro members, therefore leading to a joint deterioration of creditworthiness. We especially examine the decisions and statements of the Commission and the Council of Economic and Finance Ministers. Analysing daily data through the 1999–2005 period with an ARMAGARCH model, we find the Commission plays a decisive role in affecting investor evaluations, where its credibility-strengthening decisions decrease volatility and statements signalling a weakening of fiscal credibility spark uncertainty on financial markets. Our results stress the importance of creating credible fiscal institutions that preserve sovereign creditworthiness within the euro area.
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  • Zeitschriftenartikel

    Gender Segregation in Pre-Adolescent Peer Groups as a Matter of Class: Results from two German studies 

    Pfaff, Nicolle
    Childhood 2010; 17(1) p.43-60
    This study examines social class differences in the gender segregation of children and pre-adolescents and draws upon data from two recent German studies. Based on longitudinal quantitative data from a representative children’s survey, the first analysis suggests that in comparison to children from upper-class families, lower-class children tend to remain longer in gender-heterogeneous peer groups, a major proportion of students continue to have opposite-sex friends and changes between same- and opposite-sex peers appear earlier. In two further sections, material from a reconstructive study of 10- to 12-year-old pre-adolescents is used to describe more in-depth reflections of children themselves on gender segregation as well as orientations that develop in same-sex peer groups in contrasting social classes.
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