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  • Zeitschriftenartikel

    Institutional pioneers in world politics: Regional institution building and the influence of the European Union 

    Lenz, Tobias; Burilkov, Alexandr
    European Journal of International Relations 2017; 23(3) p.654-680
    What drives processes of institution building within regional international organizations? We challenge those established theories of regionalism, and of institutionalized cooperation more broadly, that treat different organizations as independent phenomena whose evolution is conditioned primarily by internal causal factors. Developing the basic premise of ‘diffusion theory’ — meaning that decision-making is interdependent across organizations — we argue that institutional pioneers, and specifically the European Union, shape regional institution-building processes in a number of discernible ways. We then hypothesize two pathways — active and passive — of European Union influence, and stipulate an endogenous capacity for institutional change as a key scope condition for their operation. Drawing on a new and original data set on the institutional design of 34 regional international organizations in the period from 1950 to 2010, the article finds that: (1) both the intensity of a regional international organization’s structured interaction with the European Union (active influence) and the European Union’s own level of delegation (passive influence) are associated with higher levels of delegation within other regional international organizations; (2) passive European Union influence exerts a larger overall substantive effect than active European Union influence does; and (3) these effects are strongest among those regional international organizations that are based on founding contracts containing open-ended commitments. These findings indicate that the creation and subsequent institutional evolution of the European Union has made a difference to the evolution of institutions in regional international organizations elsewhere, thereby suggesting that existing theories of regionalism are insufficiently able to account for processes of institution building in such contexts.
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    Puangthong R. Pawakapan, State and Uncivil Society in Thailand at the Temple of Preah Vihear. Singapore: ISEAS, 2013, 124 pp. ISBN 9789814459907. Price: USD 19.90 (paperback). 

    Hauser-Schäublin, Brigitta
    Bijdragen tot de taal-, land- en volkenkunde / Journal of the Humanities and Social Sciences of Southeast Asia 2013; 170(4) p.597-598
    not available
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    A review of the ecosystem functions in oil palm plantations, using forests as a reference system 

    Dislich, Claudia; Keyel, Alexander C.; Salecker, Jan; Kisel, Yael; Meyer, Katrin M.; Auliya, Mark; Barnes, Andrew D.; Corre, Marife D.; Darras, Kevin; Faust, Heiko; et al.
    Hess, BastianKlasen, StephanKnohl, AlexanderKreft, HolgerMeijide, AnaNurdiansyah, FuadOtten, FennaPe'er, GuySteinebach, StefanieTarigan, SuriaTölle, Merja H.Tscharntke, TejaWiegand, Kerstin
    Biological Reviews
    Oil palm plantations have expanded rapidly in recent decades. This large-scale land-use change has had great ecological, economic, and social impacts on both the areas converted to oil palm and their surroundings. However, research on the impacts of oil palm cultivation is scattered and patchy, and no clear overview exists. We address this gap through a systematic and comprehensive literature review of all ecosystem functions in oil palm plantations, including several (genetic, medicinal and ornamental resources, information functions) not included in previous systematic reviews. We compare ecosystem functions in oil palm plantations to those in forests, as the conversion of forest to oil palm is prevalent in the tropics. We find that oil palm plantations generally have reduced ecosystem functioning compared to forests: 11 out of 14 ecosystem functions show a net decrease in level of function. Some functions show decreases with potentially irreversible global impacts (e.g. reductions in gas and climate regulation, habitat and nursery functions, genetic resources, medicinal resources, and information functions). The most serious impacts occur when forest is cleared to establish new plantations, and immediately afterwards, especially on peat soils. To variable degrees, specific plantation management measures can prevent or reduce losses of some ecosystem functions (e.g. avoid illegal land clearing via fire, avoid draining of peat, use of integrated pest management, use of cover crops, mulch, and compost) and we highlight synergistic mitigation measures that can improve multiple ecosystem functions simultaneously. The only ecosystem function which increases in oil palm plantations is, unsurprisingly, the production of marketable goods. Our review highlights numerous research gaps. In particular, there are significant gaps with respect to socio-cultural information functions. Further, there is a need for more empirical data on the importance of spatial and temporal scales, such as differences among plantations in different environments, of different sizes, and of different ages, as our review has identified examples where ecosystem functions vary spatially and temporally. Finally, more research is needed on developing management practices that can offset the losses of ecosystem functions. Our findings should stimulate research to address the identified gaps, and provide a foundation for more systematic research and discussion on ways to minimize the negative impacts and maximize the positive impacts of oil palm cultivation.
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    Religion and new immigrants' labor market entry in Western Europe 

    Koenig, M.; Maliepaard, M.; Gu veli, A.
    Ethnicities 2016; 16(2) p.213-235
    This paper analyzes the effects of religious participation upon a major socio-economic integration outcome, namely employment, among recent Christian and Muslim newcomers in three Western European destination countries: Germany, the Netherlands, and Great Britain. The paper revisits theoretical arguments about religious participation as an ethnic investment strategy or, alternatively, as a bridge to the societal mainstream. Drawing on the longitudinal dataset produced in the international survey project on ‘Socio-cultural Integration Processes among New Immigrants in Europe’ (SCIP), the paper puts these arguments to a rigorous test by analyzing effects of involvement in religious communities on employment and by scrutinizing channeling effects of the ethnic composition of religious congregations for recent migrants’ entry into mainstream versus ethnic niche economies. The paper finds only limited support for either of the two arguments, suggesting that religious participation is structurally decoupled from socio-economic integration. However, persisting net employment gaps between recent Christian and Muslim immigrants might indicate the existence of religiously marked and socio-economically consequential boundaries in Western Europe.
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  • Zeitschriftenartikel

    Do second-generation Turkish migrants in Germany assimilate into the middle class? 

    Hartmann, J.
    Ethnicities 2014; 16(3) p.368-392
    The understanding of career paths of migrants is crucial for gaining deeper insights into assimilation processes. However, previous studies in Germany have paid little attention to middle-class assimilation and the career sequences of the second generation of migrants. This paper focuses on early employment career patterns of the children of guest workers, both men and women and especially those of Turkish origin, in comparison to native Germans. Using the German Socioeconomic Panel data set, I apply sequence analysis and regression analysis techniques to describe and assess differences in their success of middle-class assimilation in early employment careers. The findings are robust for two unique definitions of holding a middle-class position, and suggest that large differences exist between native-born Germans and second-generation Turks, and especially between second-generation Turkish women and native German women. The results for second-generation Turkish men indicate that their differences can be explained entirely by education. In the case of second-generation Turkish women, the causes for their disadvantage are more complex and include their lower education, language skills, and host-country-specific social capital as well as group-specific penalties for marriage and childbirth.
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  • Zeitschriftenartikel

    Fissures in the discourse-scape: Critique, rationality and validity in post-foundational approaches to CDS 

    Macgilchrist, Felicitas
    Discourse & Society 2016; 27(3) p.262-277
    This article explores one challenge facing critical discourse studies (CDS) in today’s mediatised world: the ontological and epistemological assumptions which prompt studies to analyse the construction of social orders (such as right-wing, racist or neoliberal orders) rather than the fissures and dislocations of these social orders. The former foregrounds stability, and the latter foregrounds instability. In this article, I first sketch postfoundational thinking, arguing that this thinking brings breakdown, disruption and instability to the centre of attention. Although postfoundational thought is most prominently associated with a particular set of thinkers (Nancy, Lefort, Laclau and Rancière), I also include approaches often omitted from current discussions (Lather, Haraway, Malabou and Sedgwick). Second, I consider three central concepts in CDS from a postfoundational perspective: critique, rationality and validity. Critique is conceptualised as a generative criticality which addresses unequal power relations through (fine-grained) analysis of hope-giving, reparative discourse which is oriented to well-being. Rationality is positioned as mobile, contingent, political and positioned, rather than universal and non-subjective. Validity is separated from understandings of objectivity and bias and associated instead with surprise and transgressive validities. Finally, two brief examples illustrate how postfoundational approaches to discourse have engaged with reframing social movements and democracy and rethinking what counts as the economy.
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  • Monografie

    Ceremonial houses of the Abelam-Papua New Guinea 

    Hauser-Schäublin, Brigitta
    Crawford House Publishing [Printausgabe]GoeScholar [Online-Ausgabe]: Goolwa, S.A. [Printausgabe], 2016
    The ceremonial houses of the Abelam people (East Sepik Province, Papua New Guinea) rank as architectural masterpieces. The impressive buildings with their richly painted façade are built on a triangular ground plan. They often reached heights of up to 30 metres, towering above even the tallest coconut palms. They were constructed completely without nails, all elements being held together with the aid of vines and liana ropes; they were built by communal labour and reflected the strength of the respective community. Outside the ceremonial cycle they served as repositories for sacred carvings but during initiations they became the place of stupendous ritual installations. The novices entered the house through a low, tunnel-like entrance before they were confronted with dramatically staged cult images inside. Following this revelation they were led out through a narrow exit at the back on to a small, hidden ceremonial ground where they remained in seclusion for several weeks. Up to the mid-1980s, knowledge concerning the construction and meaning of ceremonial houses was passed on to the next generation by means of practice (learning by doing). However, since then the Abelam have converted to Christianity and turned their backs on traditional belief and knowledge: they no longer build ceremonial houses and initiations are a matter of the past. This book is part of the author’s Habilitationsschrift originally published in German in 1989. She presents an extensive description and analysis of Abelam society at a time when the people were still building ceremonial houses, staging initiations and sacrificing pigs. Thus, this work presents a cultural record of what on longer exists.
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  • Zeitschriftenartikel

    VALORISATION OF NGOS’ EXISTENCE IN CAMEROON: OPTION FOR A MORE ENGAGED CIVIL SOCIETY (VNEC-OECS) 

    Abia, Wilfred A.; Nchanji, Eileen Bogweh; Markjovert, Ageh; Abia, Eucharia A.
    International Journal of Non-Governmental Organizations (NGOs) and Essays 2016; 1(1) p.1-17
    Non-governmental organizations (NGO) have become quite prominent in the field of international development in recent decades. Even though, NGO have taken the centre stage in the fight against poverty, social injustice and human rights most are considered weak due to their dependence on funding from government and international aid bodies. This research activity highlights the probable values and weaknesses plaguing the civil society in Cameroon. Due to the pressures of obtaining and maintaining funding, less effort is placed on management leading to a lack of accountability and inefficiency in services offered to the public. The absence of a common platform for NGO makes coordination of their activities unrealistic. In our discussion we intend to propose ways by which NGOs can synergize their action plans. The paper will end by highlighting the distance NGOs have covered as development actors in Cameroon with recommendations deduced to valorise NGOs existence in Cameroon.
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  • Zeitschriftenartikel

    Action and attitudes matter: International public opinion towards the European Union 

    Schlipphak, Bernd
    European Union Politics 2013; 14(4) p.590-618
    Descriptive studies on the European Union’s global image reveal generally favourable feelings towards the European Union on the part of citizens outside Europe. However, European Union perceptions vary considerably across countries. This article argues that these patterns can be analytically explained by taking context and individual factors into account. European Union behaviour and an individual’s supranationalist attitude should exert a substantial impact on citizens’ feelings. A multi-level model confirms the expect- ations. These findings imply practically that the behaviour of the European Union and other International Organizations shapes public opinion and that it might, in the future, negatively influence global public opinion towards the European Union.
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  • Zeitschriftenartikel

    Sex and Gender Discrimination Within Eu Pension Systems 

    Leitner, Sigrid
    Journal of European Social Policy 2001; 11(2) p.99-115
    Drawing on the philosophical differentiation between sex and gender, this article focuses on structural mechanisms of gender discrimination within European pension systems. For this purpose, the article distinguishes between two dimensions of the gender category: the work behaviour dimension and the care dimension. It is argued that the differentiation between employment and family work on the one hand and specific living arrangements on the other is structurally implemented within old age security systems. All countries have established earnings-related schemes which, to various extents, refer to former earnings and continuous working careers. Many of the earnings-related schemes incorporate family work in one way or another by granting entitlement for the care of children and/or elderly or handicapped people. Most of the schemes are combined with additional benefits for spouses and/or survivors, referring to married heterosexual couples. Only a few countries have additionally established universal pension schemes based on residence instead of employment or family work. The comparative analysis of pension systems in the 15 EU member states gives an idea about national varieties of structural gender differentiation.
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  • Zeitschriftenartikel

    Limits of the Division of Labour. New Production and Employment Concepts in West German Industry 

    Kern, Horst; Schumann, Michael
    Economic and Industrial Democracy 1987; 8(2) p.151-170
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  • Zeitschriftenartikel

    The euro area's common default risk: Evidence on the Commission's impact on European fiscal affairs 

    Goldbach, Roman; Fahrholz, Christian
    European Union Politics 2011; 12(4) p.507-528
    Sovereign creditworthiness within the euro area hinges upon the credibility of the Stability and Growth Pact (SGP). We analyse whether political events that worsen the SGP’s credibility result in a shared default risk premium for all euro members, therefore leading to a joint deterioration of creditworthiness. We especially examine the decisions and statements of the Commission and the Council of Economic and Finance Ministers. Analysing daily data through the 1999–2005 period with an ARMAGARCH model, we find the Commission plays a decisive role in affecting investor evaluations, where its credibility-strengthening decisions decrease volatility and statements signalling a weakening of fiscal credibility spark uncertainty on financial markets. Our results stress the importance of creating credible fiscal institutions that preserve sovereign creditworthiness within the euro area.
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  • Zeitschriftenartikel

    Gender Segregation in Pre-Adolescent Peer Groups as a Matter of Class: Results from two German studies 

    Pfaff, Nicolle
    Childhood 2010; 17(1) p.43-60
    This study examines social class differences in the gender segregation of children and pre-adolescents and draws upon data from two recent German studies. Based on longitudinal quantitative data from a representative children’s survey, the first analysis suggests that in comparison to children from upper-class families, lower-class children tend to remain longer in gender-heterogeneous peer groups, a major proportion of students continue to have opposite-sex friends and changes between same- and opposite-sex peers appear earlier. In two further sections, material from a reconstructive study of 10- to 12-year-old pre-adolescents is used to describe more in-depth reflections of children themselves on gender segregation as well as orientations that develop in same-sex peer groups in contrasting social classes.
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  • Zeitschriftenartikel

    Trade Unions and Decentralized Production: A Sketch of Strategic Problems in the West German Labor Movement 

    Kern, Horst; Sabel, Charles F.
    Politics & Society 1991; 19(4) p.373-402
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  • Zeitschriftenartikel

    Europeanization, Religion and Collective Identities in an Enlarging Europe 

    Spohn, Willfried
    European Journal of Social Theory 2009; 12(3) p.358-374
    This article analyzes the conflictive role of religion in post-1989 Europe. Three major reasons for this are addressed: first, the restoration of structural and cultural pluralism of European civilization since the breakdown of communism entails the reconstitution of the full diversity of European religion. Second, international migration as a crucial part of globalization has intensified, contributing to the transformation of Europe into a complex of multi-cultural and pluri-religious societies. Third, the wave of contemporary globalization has been accompanied by an intensification of inter-civilizational and inter-religious encounters and conflicts — particularly between Christianity and Islam. As a result, European integration and enlargement as a secular and humanist mode of cultural integration and religious governance are basically challenged by this three-fold revitalization of religion. The growing tendency is to respond to this challenge by enhancing the Christian foundations of Europe rather than, as this article argues, to follow a more cosmopolitan, secularist and religious pluralist mode of European cultural integration.
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  • Zeitschriftenartikel

    The Relations of Vocational Interests and Mathematical Literacy : On the Predictive Power of Interest Profiles 

    Warwas, Jasmin; Nagy, Gabriel; Watermann, Rainer; Hasselhorn, Marcus
    Journal of Career Assessment 2009; 17(4) p.417-438
    This study examines the relationships of vocational interests and mathematical literacy both cross-sectionally and longitudinally. Extending previous research, the results of Holland’s RIASEC (Realistic, Investigative, Artistic, Social, Enterprising, and Conventional) scale scores are compared with results from a reductionist approach using individual interest profiles (including the parameters level, differentiation, and orientation). Both analyses find significant relations between interests and mathematical literacy. The scale score analyses reveal positive associations of Realistic interests with mathematical literacy, whereas Artistic interests show a negative association. Interest profiles from a dimensional representation show individuals with interest orientations close to the Realistic domain score highest on mathematical literacy, with those with interests in both Artistic and Social domains scoring lowest. Results from profile analyses suggest that interest differentiation moderates the interest—ability relation. Only interest profiles are predictive for mathematical literacy over and above covariates, indicating that interest profiles are more robust predictors than the scale scores. Analyses show that interest profiles are a valid reduction of the scale score models.
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  • Zeitschriftenartikel

    Religion publique et médiation religieuse chez les musulmans mauriciens 

    Eisenlohr, Patrick
    Social Compass 2014; 61(1) p.48-56
    The uses of sound reproduction among Mauritian Muslims illustrate the links between public religion and religious mediation. These two dimensions of religion rely on material objects and media technologies, coalescing in what are frequently the same media practices. In this essay I investigate the ambiguous relationships between these two mediated forms of religion, tracing their mutually supporting and conflictual relationships. Their articulations also provide insights into questions of religious authority and authenticity that are prominent in a diasporic location such as Mauritius, as well as into the constitution of the boundary between religion and non-religion through media practices.
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  • Zeitschriftenartikel

    The Healing Effects of Storytelling: On the Conditions of Curative Storytelling in the Context of Research and Counseling 

    Rosenthal, Gabriele
    Qualitative Inquiry 2003; 9(6) p.915-933
    Conducting a biographical-narrative interview is already a kind of psychological intervention. In this article, I will reflect on this. I will introduce the narrative-interviewing method and discuss the following: What processes are prompted for narrators when they tell their life story and for the interviewer guiding the conversation in a narrativebiographical style? What are the chances offered by this method of directing a conversation for setting off initial healing processes, and what are the risks and dangers involved? These questions are pursued, in particular, in the context of research interviews— especially in the context of my interviews with survivors of the Shoah and their children and grandchildren—but also in the context of counseling. I will also discuss the method’s limits in conversations with people experiencing acute life crises.
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  • Zeitschriftenartikel

    World history, civilizational analysis and historical sociology: Interpretations of non-Western civilizations in the work of Johann Arnason 

    Spohn, Willfried
    European Journal of Social Theory 2011; 14(1) p.23-39
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  • Zeitschriftenartikel

    Work and Social Character: Old and New Contours 

    Kern, Horst; Schumann, Michael
    Economic and Industrial Democracy 1984; 5(1) p.51-71
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