Items 1-20 of 624

    • Journal Article

      Generic parameters of first-order kinetics accurately describe soil organic matter decay in bare fallow soils over a wide edaphic and climatic range 

      Menichetti, Lorenzo; Ågren, Göran I.; Barré, Pierre; Moyano, Fernando; Kätterer, Thomas
      Scientific Reports 2019; 9(1): Art. 20319
      The conventional soil organic matter (SOM) decay paradigm considers the intrinsic quality of SOM as the dominant decay limitation with the result that it is modelled using simple first-order decay kinetics. This view and modelling approach is often criticized for being too simplistic and unreliable for predictive purposes. It is still under debate if first-order models can correctly capture the variability in temporal SOM decay observed between different agroecosystems and climates. To address this question, we calibrated a first-order model (Q) on six long-term bare fallow field experiments across Europe. Following conventional SOM decay theory, we assumed that parameters directly describing SOC decay (rate of SOM quality change and decomposer metabolism) are thermodynamically constrained and therefore valid for all sites. Initial litter input quality and edaphic interactions (both local by definition) and microbial efficiency (possibly affected by nutrient stoichiometry) were instead considered site-specific. Initial litter input quality explained most observed kinetics variability, and the model predicted a convergence toward a common kinetics over time. Site-specific variables played no detectable role. The decay of decades-old SOM seemed mostly influenced by OM chemistry and was well described by first order kinetics and a single set of general kinetics parameters.
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    • Journal Article

      The Unfolded Protein Response Regulates Pathogenic Development of Ustilago maydis by Rok1-Dependent Inhibition of Mating-Type Signaling 

      Schmitz, Lara; Schwier, Melina Ayaka; Heimel, Kai
      Scientific Reports 2019; 10(6): Art. 20319
      The conventional soil organic matter (SOM) decay paradigm considers the intrinsic quality of SOM as the dominant decay limitation with the result that it is modelled using simple first-order decay kinetics. This view and modelling approach is often criticized for being too simplistic and unreliable for predictive purposes. It is still under debate if first-order models can correctly capture the variability in temporal SOM decay observed between different agroecosystems and climates. To address this question, we calibrated a first-order model (Q) on six long-term bare fallow field experiments across Europe. Following conventional SOM decay theory, we assumed that parameters directly describing SOC decay (rate of SOM quality change and decomposer metabolism) are thermodynamically constrained and therefore valid for all sites. Initial litter input quality and edaphic interactions (both local by definition) and microbial efficiency (possibly affected by nutrient stoichiometry) were instead considered site-specific. Initial litter input quality explained most observed kinetics variability, and the model predicted a convergence toward a common kinetics over time. Site-specific variables played no detectable role. The decay of decades-old SOM seemed mostly influenced by OM chemistry and was well described by first order kinetics and a single set of general kinetics parameters.
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    • Journal Article

      Impact Assessment of Timber Harvesting Operations for Enhancing Sustainable Management in a Secondary Atlantic Forest 

      Britto, Pedro C.; Jaeger, Dirk; Hoffmann, Stephan; Robert, Renato C. G.; Vibrans, Alexander C.; Fantini, Alfredo C.
      Sustainability 2019; 11(22): Art. 6272
      Conservation and management of forest ecosystems are currently largely conflicting goals in the Brazilian Atlantic Forest biome. At present, all parts of the Atlantic Forest are protected and commercial logging is highly restricted. However, sustainable forest management systems can offer significant income opportunities for landholders, and thereby actively support the process of ecosystem rehabilitation and protection of the Atlantic Forest. This research is intended to contribute to enhancing the development of environmentally sound forest management alternatives in the Atlantic Forest biome. Through a case study, the harvesting impact of a conventional harvesting method (CM) was evaluated and compared with an alternative and improved harvesting method (AM), performed by a well-trained professional chainsaw operator experienced in reduced impact logging techniques, and included the use of a snatch block and a skidding cone. Following a full pre-harvest inventory, 110 different tree species were identified. The harvesting impact on the residual stand was classified and evaluated through a successive post-harvest inventory. Damage maps were developed based on interpolation of tree damage intensities with the triangular irregular networks (TIN) methodology. Our results showed noticeable high rates of tree hang-ups, observed for both harvesting methods. Furthermore, the harvesting damaged trees mainly in the lower diameter at breast height (DBH) classes. In comparison to winching, the felling process caused most of the damage to remnant trees for both methods, at 87% (CM) and 88% (AM). The number of damaged trees (above 11.9 cm DBH) per harvested tree, for CM, ranged from 0.8 trees to 2.5 trees and, for AM, ranged from 0.6 trees to 2.2 trees. Improvements of the AM method (operator skills, skidding cone and snatch block) over CM allowed for a reduction of the damaged basal area, a reduction of the “high damaged area” per plot, and a reduction of the winching disturbed ground area. Nonetheless, a suitable harvesting system should consider further improvements in the felling technique, and additionally integrate the local knowledge of CM regarding forest and tree species with the technical improvements of AM.
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    • Journal Article

      Response of tree diversity and community composition to forest use intensity along a tropical elevational gradient 

      Monge‐González, María Leticia; Craven, Dylan; Krömer, Thorsten; Castillo‐Campos, Gonzalo; Hernández‐Sánchez, Alejandro; Guzmán‐Jacob, Valeria; Guerrero‐Ramírez, Nathaly; Kreft, Holger
      Applied Vegetation Science 2019; 23(1) p.69-79
      Question: Land-use change and intensification are currently the most pervasive threats to tropical biodiversity. Yet, their effects on biodiversity change with eleva-tion are unknown. Here, we examine how tree diversity and community composition vary with elevation and how the effects of forest use intensity on tree diversity and community composition change within elevations.Location: Eastern slopes of the Cofre de Perote mountain, state of Veracruz, Mexico.Methods: We assessed tree diversity and composition using a sampling design in which elevation was crossed with three levels of forest use intensity: old-growth, degraded, and secondary forests. We established 120 20 m × 20 m forest plots, lo-cated at eight sites between 0 m and 3,545 m. At each site, five replicate plots were inventoried for each level of forest use intensity.Results: Our analyses revealed an interactive effect between elevation and forest use intensity affecting tree diversity and community composition along the eleva-tional gradient. Contrasting effects of forest use intensity within elevation resulted in tree diversity following a low-plateau pattern for old-growth and a bimodal pat-tern for degraded and secondary forests. Along the entire elevational gradient, there were 217 tree species distributed within 154 genera and 80 families. Species accu-mulation curves revealed that forests at 0 m and 1,500 m elevation showed differ-ences in species richness among forest use intensities. In contrast, species richness did not differ between old-growth forest and the other forest use intensities in five of the eight studied elevations. In terms of community composition, secondary forests differed from old-growth and degraded forests.Conclusion: Our results suggest that the interactive effects of elevation and for-est use intensity change tree diversity patterns and community composition along a tropical elevational gradient. Degraded forests were similar to old-growth forests in terms of species diversity and composition, suggesting that they may act as a safe-guard of tree diversity in human-dominated tropical landscapes.
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    • Journal Article

      TRY plant trait database – enhanced coverage and open access 

      Kattge, Jens; Bönisch, Gerhard; Díaz, Sandra; Lavorel, Sandra; Prentice, Iain Colin; Leadley, Paul; Tautenhahn, Susanne; Werner, Gijsbert D. A.; Aakala, Tuomas; Abedi, Mehdi; et al.
      Acosta, Alicia T. R.Adamidis, George C.Adamson, KairiAiba, MasahiroAlbert, Cécile H.Alcántara, Julio M.Alcázar C, CarolinaAleixo, IzabelaAli, HamadaAmiaud, BernardAmmer, ChristianAmoroso, Mariano M.Anand, MadhurAnderson, CarolynAnten, NielsAntos, JosephApgaua, Deborah Mattos GuimarãesAshman, Tia‐LynnAsmara, Degi HarjaAsner, Gregory P.Aspinwall, MichaelAtkin, OwenAubin, IsabelleBaastrup‐Spohr, LarsBahalkeh, KhadijehBahn, MichaelBaker, TimothyBaker, William J.Bakker, Jan P.Baldocchi, DennisBaltzer, JenniferBanerjee, ArindamBaranger, AnneBarlow, JosBarneche, Diego R.Baruch, ZdravkoBastianelli, DenisBattles, JohnBauerle, WilliamBauters, MarijnBazzato, ErikaBeckmann, MichaelBeeckman, HansBeierkuhnlein, CarlBekker, ReneeBelfry, GavinBelluau, MichaelBeloiu, MirelaBenavides, RaquelBenomar, LahcenBerdugo‐Lattke, Mary LeeBerenguer, ErikaBergamin, RodrigoBergmann, JoanaBergmann Carlucci, MarcosBerner, LoganBernhardt‐Römermann, MarkusBigler, ChristofBjorkman, Anne D.Blackman, ChrisBlanco, CarolinaBlonder, BenjaminBlumenthal, DanaBocanegra‐González, Kelly T.Boeckx, PascalBohlman, StephanieBöhning‐Gaese, KatrinBoisvert‐Marsh, LauraBond, WilliamBond‐Lamberty, BenBoom, ArnoudBoonman, Coline C. F.Bordin, KauaneBoughton, Elizabeth H.Boukili, VanessaBowman, David M. J. S.Bravo, SandraBrendel, Marco RichardBroadley, Martin R.Brown, Kerry A.Bruelheide, HelgeBrumnich, FedericoBruun, Hans HenrikBruy, DavidBuchanan, Serra W.Bucher, Solveig FranziskaBuchmann, NinaBuitenwerf, RobertBunker, Daniel E.Bürger, JanaBurrascano, SabinaBurslem, David F. R. P.Butterfield, Bradley J.Byun, ChaehoMarques, MarciaScalon, Marina C.Caccianiga, MarcoCadotte, MarcCailleret, MaximeCamac, JamesCamarero, Jesús JulioCampany, CourtneyCampetella, GiandiegoCampos, Juan AntonioCano‐Arboleda, LauraCanullo, RobertoCarbognani, MicheleCarvalho, FabioCasanoves, FernandoCastagneyrol, BastienCatford, Jane A.Cavender‐Bares, JeannineCerabolini, Bruno E. L.Cervellini, MarcoChacón‐Madrigal, EduardoChapin, KennethChapin, F. StuartChelli, StefanoChen, Si‐ChongChen, AnpingCherubini, PaoloChianucci, FrancescoChoat, BrendanChung, Kyong‐SookChytrý, MilanCiccarelli, DanielaColl, LluísCollins, Courtney G.Conti, LuisaCoomes, DavidCornelissen, Johannes H. C.Cornwell, William K.Corona, PiermariaCoyea, MarieCraine, JosephCraven, DylanCromsigt, Joris P. G. M.Csecserits, AnikóCufar, KatarinaCuntz, MatthiasSilva, Ana CarolinaDahlin, Kyla M.Dainese, MatteoDalke, IgorDalle Fratte, MicheleDang‐Le, Anh TuanDanihelka, JiríDannoura, MasakoDawson, SamanthaBeer, Arend JacobusDe Frutos, AngelDe Long, Jonathan R.Dechant, BenjaminDelagrange, SylvainDelpierre, NicolasDerroire, GéraldineDias, Arildo S.Diaz‐Toribio, Milton HugoDimitrakopoulos, Panayiotis G.Dobrowolski, MarkDoktor, DanielDřevojan, PavelDong, NingDransfield, JohnDressler, StefanDuarte, LeandroDucouret, EmilieDullinger, StefanDurka, WalterDuursma, RemkoDymova, OlgaE‐Vojtkó, AnnaEckstein, Rolf LutzEjtehadi, HamidElser, JamesEmilio, ThaiseEngemann, KristineErfanian, Mohammad BagherErfmeier, AlexandraEsquivel‐Muelbert, AdrianeEsser, GerdEstiarte, MarcDomingues, Tomas F.Fagan, William F.Fagúndez, JaimeFalster, Daniel S.Fan, YingFang, JingyunFarris, EmmanueleFazlioglu, FatihFeng, YanhaoFernandez‐Mendez, FernandoFerrara, CarlottaFerreira, JoiceFidelis, AlessandraFinegan, BryanFirn, JenniferFlowers, Timothy J.Flynn, Dan F. B.Fontana, VeronikaForey, EstelleForgiarini, CristianeFrançois, LouisFrangipani, MarceloFrank, DorotheaFrenette‐Dussault, CedricFreschet, Grégoire T.Fry, Ellen L.Fyllas, Nikolaos M.Mazzochini, Guilherme G.Gachet, SophieGallagher, RachaelGanade, GisleneGanga, FrancescaGarcía‐Palacios, PabloGargaglione, VerónicaGarnier, EricGarrido, Jose LuisGasper, André LuísGea‐Izquierdo, GuillermoGibson, DavidGillison, Andrew N.Giroldo, AeltonGlasenhardt, Mary‐ClaireGleason, SeanGliesch, MarianaGoldberg, EmmaGöldel, BastianGonzalez‐Akre, ErikaGonzalez‐Andujar, Jose L.González‐Melo, AndrésGonzález‐Robles, AnaGraae, Bente JessenGranda, ElenaGraves, SarahGreen, Walton A.Gregor, ThomasGross, NicolasGuerin, Greg R.Günther, AngelaGutiérrez, Alvaro G.Haddock, LillieHaines, AnnaHall, JeffersonHambuckers, AlainHan, WenxuanHarrison, Sandy P.Hattingh, WesleyHawes, Joseph E.He, TianhuaHe, PengchengHeberling, Jacob MasonHelm, AveliinaHempel, StefanHentschel, JörnHérault, BrunoHereş, Ana‐MariaHerz, KatharinaHeuertz, MyriamHickler, ThomasHietz, PeterHiguchi, PedroHipp, Andrew L.Hirons, AndrewHock, MariaHogan, James AaronHoll, KarenHonnay, OlivierHornstein, DanielHou, EnqingHough‐Snee, NateHovstad, Knut AndersIchie, TomoakiIgić, BorisIlla, EstelaIsaac, MarneyIshihara, MasaeIvanov, LeonidIvanova, LarissaIversen, Colleen M.Izquierdo, JordiJackson, Robert B.Jackson, BenjaminJactel, HervéJagodzinski, Andrzej M.Jandt, UteJansen, StevenJenkins, ThomasJentsch, AnkeJespersen, Jens Rasmus PlantenerJiang, Guo‐FengJohansen, Jesper LiengaardJohnson, DavidJokela, Eric J.Joly, Carlos AlfredoJordan, Gregory J.Joseph, Grant StuartJunaedi, DeckyJunker, Robert R.Justes, EricKabzems, RichardKane, JeffreyKaplan, ZdenekKattenborn, TejaKavelenova, LyudmilaKearsley, ElizabethKempel, AnneKenzo, TanakaKerkhoff, AndrewKhalil, Mohammed I.Kinlock, Nicole L.Kissling, Wilm DanielKitajima, KaoruKitzberger, ThomasKjøller, RasmusKlein, TamirKleyer, MichaelKlimešová, JitkaKlipel, JoiceKloeppel, BrianKlotz, StefanKnops, Johannes M. H.Kohyama, TakashiKoike, FumitoKollmann, JohannesKomac, BenjaminKomatsu, KimberlyKönig, ChristianKraft, Nathan J. B.Kramer, KoenKreft, HolgerKühn, IngolfKumarathunge, DushanKuppler, JonasKurokawa, HirokoKurosawa, YokoKuyah, ShemLaclau, Jean‐PaulLafleur, BenoitLallai, ErikLamb, EricLamprecht, AndreaLarkin, Daniel J.Laughlin, DanielLe Bagousse‐Pinguet, YoannMaire, GuerricRoux, Peter C.Roux, ElizabethLee, TaliLens, FredericLewis, Simon L.Lhotsky, BarbaraLi, YuanzhiLi, XineLichstein, Jeremy W.Liebergesell, MarioLim, Jun YingLin, Yan‐ShihLinares, Juan CarlosLiu, ChunjiangLiu, DaijunLiu, UdayanganiLivingstone, StuartLlusià, JoanLohbeck, MadelonLópez‐García, ÁlvaroLopez‐Gonzalez, GabrielaLososová, ZdeňkaLouault, FrédériqueLukács, Balázs A.Lukeš, PetrLuo, YunjianLussu, MicheleMa, SiyanMaciel Rabelo Pereira, CamillaMack, MichelleMaire, VincentMäkelä, AnnikkiMäkinen, HarriMalhado, Ana Claudia MendesMallik, AzimManning, PeterManzoni, StefanoMarchetti, ZuleicaMarchino, LucaMarcilio‐Silva, ViniciusMarcon, EricMarignani, MichelaMarkesteijn, LarsMartin, AdamMartínez‐Garza, CristinaMartínez‐Vilalta, JordiMašková, TerezaMason, KellyMason, NormanMassad, Tara JoyMasse, JacyntheMayrose, ItayMcCarthy, JamesMcCormack, M. LukeMcCulloh, KatherineMcFadden, Ian R.McGill, Brian J.McPartland, Mara Y.Medeiros, Juliana S.Medlyn, BelindaMeerts, PierreMehrabi, ZiaMeir, PatrickMelo, Felipe P. L.Mencuccini, MaurizioMeredieu, CélineMessier, JulieMészáros, IlonaMetsaranta, JuhaMichaletz, Sean T.Michelaki, ChrysanthiMigalina, SvetlanaMilla, RubenMiller, Jesse E. D.Minden, VanessaMing, RayMokany, KarelMoles, Angela T.Molnár, AttilaMolofsky, JaneMolz, MartinMontgomery, Rebecca A.Monty, ArnaudMoravcová, LenkaMoreno‐Martínez, AlvaroMoretti, MarcoMori, Akira S.Mori, ShigetaMorris, DaveMorrison, JaneMucina, LadislavMueller, SandraMuir, Christopher D.Müller, Sandra CristinaMunoz, FrançoisMyers‐Smith, Isla H.Myster, Randall W.Nagano, MasahiroNaidu, ShawnaNarayanan, AyyappanNatesan, BalachandranNegoita, LukaNelson, Andrew S.Neuschulz, Eike LenaNi, JianNiedrist, GeorgNieto, JhonNiinemets, ÜloNolan, RachaelNottebrock, HenningNouvellon, YannNovakovskiy, AlexanderNystuen, Kristin OddenO'Grady, AnthonyO'Hara, KevinO'Reilly‐Nugent, AndrewOakley, SimonOberhuber, WalterOhtsuka, ToshiyukiOliveira, RicardoÖllerer, KingaOlson, Mark E.Onipchenko, VladimirOnoda, YusukeOnstein, Renske E.Ordonez, Jenny C.Osada, NoriyukiOstonen, IvikaOttaviani, GianluigiOtto, SarahOverbeck, Gerhard E.Ozinga, Wim A.Pahl, Anna T.Paine, C. E. TimothyPakeman, Robin J.Papageorgiou, Aristotelis C.Parfionova, EvgeniyaPärtel, MeelisPatacca, MarcoPaula, SusanaPaule, JurajPauli, HaraldPausas, Juli G.Peco, BegoñaPenuelas, JosepPerea, AntonioPeri, Pablo LuisPetisco‐Souza, Ana CarolinaPetraglia, AlessandroPetritan, Any MaryPhillips, Oliver L.Pierce, SimonPillar, Valério D.Pisek, JanPomogaybin, AlexandrPoorter, HendrikPortsmuth, AngelikaPoschlod, PeterPotvin, CatherinePounds, DevonPowell, A. ShaferPower, Sally A.Prinzing, AndreasPuglielli, GiacomoPyšek, PetrRaevel, ValerieRammig, AnjaRansijn, JohannesRay, Courtenay A.Reich, Peter B.Reichstein, MarkusReid, Douglas E. B.Réjou‐Méchain, MaximeDios, Victor RescoRibeiro, SabinaRichardson, SarahRiibak, KerstiRillig, Matthias C.Riviera, FiammaRobert, Elisabeth M. R.Roberts, ScottRobroek, BjornRoddy, AdamRodrigues, Arthur ViniciusRogers, AlistairRollinson, EmilyRolo, VictorRömermann, ChristineRonzhina, DinaRoscher, ChristianeRosell, Julieta A.Rosenfield, Milena FerminaRossi, ChristianRoy, David B.Royer‐Tardif, SamuelRüger, NadjaRuiz‐Peinado, RicardoRumpf, Sabine B.Rusch, Graciela M.Ryo, MasahiroSack, LawrenSaldaña, AngelaSalgado‐Negret, BeatrizSalguero‐Gomez, RobertoSanta‐Regina, IgnacioSantacruz‐García, Ana CarolinaSantos, JoaquimSardans, JordiSchamp, BrandonScherer‐Lorenzen, MichaelSchleuning, MatthiasSchmid, BernhardSchmidt, MarcoSchmitt, SylvainSchneider, Julio V.Schowanek, Simon D.Schrader, JulianSchrodt, FranziskaSchuldt, BernhardSchurr, FrankSelaya Garvizu, GaliaSemchenko, MarinaSeymour, ColleenSfair, Julia C.Sharpe, Joanne M.Sheppard, Christine S.Sheremetiev, SergeShiodera, SatomiShipley, BillShovon, Tanvir AhmedSiebenkäs, AlrunSierra, CarlosSilva, VascoSilva, MateusSitzia, TommasoSjöman, HenrikSlot, MartijnSmith, Nicholas G.Sodhi, DarwinSoltis, PamelaSoltis, DouglasSomers, BenSonnier, GrégorySørensen, Mia VedelSosinski, Enio EgonSoudzilovskaia, Nadejda A.Souza, Alexandre F.Spasojevic, MarkoSperandii, Marta GaiaStan, Amanda B.Stegen, JamesSteinbauer, KlausStephan, Jörg G.Sterck, FrankStojanovic, Dejan B.Strydom, TanyaSuarez, Maria LauraSvenning, Jens‐ChristianSvitková, IvanaSvitok, MarekSvoboda, MiroslavSwaine, EmilySwenson, NathanTabarelli, MarceloTakagi, KentaroTappeiner, UlrikeTarifa, RubénTauugourdeau, SimonTavsanoglu, CagatayBeest, MariskaTedersoo, LehoThiffault, NelsonThom, DominikThomas, EvertThompson, KenThornton, Peter E.Thuiller, WilfriedTichý, LubomírTissue, DavidTjoelker, Mark G.Tng, David Yue PhinTobias, JosephTörök, PéterTarin, TonantzinTorres‐Ruiz, José M.Tóthmérész, BélaTreurnicht, MartinaTrivellone, ValeriaTrolliet, FranckTrotsiuk, VolodymyrTsakalos, James L.Tsiripidis, IoannisTysklind, NiklasUmehara, ToruUsoltsev, VladimirVadeboncoeur, MatthewVaezi, JamilValladares, FernandoVamosi, JanaBodegom, Peter M.Breugel, MichielVan Cleemput, ElisaWeg, MartineMerwe, StephniPlas, FonsSande, Masha T.Kleunen, MarkVan Meerbeek, KoenraadVanderwel, MarkVanselow, Kim AndréVårhammar, AngelicaVarone, LauraVasquez Valderrama, Maribel YeseniaVassilev, KirilVellend, MarkVeneklaas, Erik J.Verbeeck, HansVerheyen, KrisVibrans, AlexanderVieira, ImaVillacís, JaimeViolle, CyrilleVivek, PandiWagner, KatrinWaldram, MatthewWaldron, AnthonyWalker, Anthony P.Waller, MartynWalther, GabrielWang, HanWang, FengWang, WeiqiWatkins, HarryWatkins, JamesWeber, UlrichWeedon, James T.Wei, LipingWeigelt, PatrickWeiher, EvanWells, Aidan W.Wellstein, CamillaWenk, ElizabethWestoby, MarkWestwood, AlanaWhite, Philip JohnWhitten, MarkWilliams, MathewWinkler, Daniel E.Winter, KlausWomack, ChevonneWright, Ian J.Wright, S. JosephWright, JustinPinho, Bruno X.Ximenes, FabianoYamada, ToshihiroYamaji, KeikoYanai, RuthYankov, NikolayYguel, BenjaminZanini, Kátia JanainaZanne, Amy E.Zelený, DavidZhao, Yun‐PengZheng, JingmingZheng, JiZiemińska, KasiaZirbel, Chad R.Zizka, GeorgZo‐Bi, Irié CasimirZotz, GerhardWirth, Christian
      Global Change Biology 2019; 26(1) p.119-188
      Plant traits-the morphological, anatomical, physiological, biochemical and phenological characteristics of plants-determine how plants respond to environmental factors, affect other trophic levels, and influence ecosystem properties and their benefits and detriments to people. Plant trait data thus represent the basis for a vast area of research spanning from evolutionary biology, community and functional ecology, to biodiversity conservation, ecosystem and landscape management, restoration, biogeography and earth system modelling. Since its foundation in 2007, the TRY database of plant traits has grown continuously. It now provides unprecedented data coverage under an open access data policy and is the main plant trait database used by the research community worldwide. Increasingly, the TRY database also supports new frontiers of trait-based plant research, including the identification of data gaps and the subsequent mobilization or measurement of new data. To support this development, in this article we evaluate the extent of the trait data compiled in TRY and analyse emerging patterns of data coverage and representativeness. Best species coverage is achieved for categorical traits-almost complete coverage for 'plant growth form'. However, most traits relevant for ecology and vegetation modelling are characterized by continuous intraspecific variation and trait-environmental relationships. These traits have to be measured on individual plants in their respective environment. Despite unprecedented data coverage, we observe a humbling lack of completeness and representativeness of these continuous traits in many aspects. We, therefore, conclude that reducing data gaps and biases in the TRY database remains a key challenge and requires a coordinated approach to data mobilization and trait measurements. This can only be achieved in collaboration with other initiatives.
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    • Journal Article

      How can forest management increase biomass accumulation and CO2 sequestration? A case study on beech forests in Hesse, Germany 

      Krug, Joachim H. A.
      Carbon Balance and Management 2019; 14(1): Art. 17
      BACKGROUND: While the capability of forests to sequester carbon dioxide (CO2) is acknowledged as an important component in fighting climate change, a closer look reveals the difficulties in determining the actual contribution by forest management when indirect and natural impacts are to be factored out. The goal of this study is to determine the direct human-induced impacts on forest growth by cumulative biomass growth and resulting structural changes, exemplified for a dominating forest species Fagus sylvatica L. in central Europe. In 1988, forest reserves with directly adjacent forest management areas (under business as usual management) were established in the federal state of Hesse, Germany. Thereof, 212 ha of forest reserve and 224 ha of management area were selected for this study. Biomass changes were recorded for a time span of 19 to 24 years by methods used in the National Inventory Report (NIR) and structural changes by standard approaches, as well as by a growth-dominance model. RESULTS: The results indicate a higher rate of cumulative biomass production in the investigated management areas and age classes. The cumulative biomass growth reveals a superior periodic biomass accumulation of about 16%. For beech alone, it is noted to be about 19% higher in management areas than in forest reserves. When harvests are not included, forest reserves provide about 40% more biomass than management areas. The analysis of growth-dominance structures indicates that forest management led to a situation where trees of all sizes contributed to biomass increment more proportionally; a related increase in productivity may be explained by potentially improved resource-use efficiency. CONCLUSIONS: The results allow a conclusion on management-induced structural changes and their impact on carbon sequestration for Fagus sylvatica L., the dominating forest species in central Germany. This affirms a potential superiority of managed forests to forests where the management was abandoned in terms of biomass accumulation and reveal the impact and effect of the respective interventions. Especially the analysis of growth-dominance structures indicates that forest management resulted in more balanced dominance structures, and these in higher individual biomass increment. Forest management obviously led to a situation where trees of all sizes contributed to biomass increment more proportionally.
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    • Journal Article

      Tensile and Impact Bending Properties of Chemically Modified Scots Pine 

      Bollmus, Susanne; Beeretz, Cara; Militz, Holger
      Forests 2020; 11(1): Art. 84
      This study deals with the influence of chemical modification on elasto-mechanical properties of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.). The elasto-mechanical properties examined were impact bending strength, determined by impact bending test; tensile strength; and work to maximum load in traction, determined by tensile tests. The modification agents used were one melamine-formaldehyde resin (MF), one low molecular weight phenol-formaldehyde resin, one higher molecular weight phenol-formaldehyde resin, and a dimethylol dihydroxyethyleneurea (DMDHEU). Special attention was paid to the influence of the solution concentration (0.5%, 5%, and 20%). With an increase in the concentration of each modification agent, the elasto-mechanical properties decreased as compared to the control specimens. Especially impact bending strength decreased greatly by modifications with the 0.5% solutions of each agent (by 37% to 47%). Modification with DMDHEU resulted in the highest overall reduction of the elasto-mechanical properties examined (up to 81% in work to maximum load in traction at 20% solution concentration). The results indicate that embrittlement is not primarily related to the degree of modification depended on used solution concentration. It is therefore assumed that molecular size and the resulting ability to penetrate into the cell wall could be crucial. The results show that, in the application of chemically modified wood, impact and tensile loads should be avoided even after treatment with low concentrations.
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    • Journal Article

      Climatic and vegetational drivers of insect beta diversity at the continental scale 

      Chesters, Douglas; Beckschäfer, Philip; Orr, Michael C.; Adamowicz, Sarah J.; Chun, Kwok‐Pan; Zhu, Chao‐Dong
      Ecology and Evolution 2019; 9(24) p.13764-13775
      Aim: We construct a framework for mapping pattern and drivers of insect diversity at the continental scale and use it to test whether and which environmental gradients drive insect beta diversity. Location: Global; North and Central America; Western Europe. Time period: 21st century. Major taxa studied: Insects. Methods: An informatics system was developed to integrate terrestrial data on insects with environmental parameters. We mined repositories of data for distribution, climatic data were retrieved (WorldClim), and vegetation parameters inferred from remote sensing analysis (MODIS Vegetation Continuous Fields). Beta diversity between sites was calculated and then modeled with two methods, Mantel test with multiple regression and generalized dissimilarity modeling. Results: Geographic distance was the main driver of insect beta diversity. Independent of geographic distance, bioclimate variables explained more variance in dissimilarity than vegetation variables, although the particular variables found to be significant were more consistent in the latter, particularly, tree cover. Tree cover gradients drove compositional dissimilarity at denser coverages, in both continental case studies. For climate, gradients in temperature parameters were significant in driving beta diversity more so than gradients in precipitation parameters. Main conclusions: Although environmental gradients drive insect beta diversity independently of geography, the relative contribution of different climatic and vegetational parameters is not expected to be consistent in different study systems. With further incorporation of additional temporal information and variables, this approach will enable the development of a predictive framework for conserving insect biodiversity at the global scale.
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    • Journal Article

      Assessment of Preservative-Treated Wooden Poles Using Drilling-Resistance Measurements 

      Sharapov, Evgenii; Brischke, Christian; Militz, Holger
      Forests 2020; 11(1): Art. 20
      An IML-Resi PD-400 drilling tool with two types of spade drill bits (IML System GmbH, Wiesloch, Germany) was used to evaluate the internal conditions of 3 m wooden poles made from Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.). Drilling tests were performed on poles that were industrially vacuum-pressure-impregnated with a copper-based preservative (Korasit KS-M) and untreated reference poles. Both types of poles were subject to 10.5 years of in-ground exposure. Wood moisture content (MC) was measured using a resistance-type moisture meter. MC varied between 15% and 60% in the radial and axial directions in both treated and untreated poles. A higher MC was detected in the underground, top, and outer (sapwood) parts of the poles. Typical drilling-resistance (DR) profiles of poles with internal defects were analyzed. Preservative treatment had a significant influence on wood durability in the underground part of the poles. Based on DR measurements, we found that untreated wood that was in contact with soil was severely degraded by insects and wood-destroying fungi. Conversely, treated wood generally showed no reduction in DR or feeding resistance (FR). DR profiling is a potential method for the in-situ or in vitro assessment and quality monitoring of preservative treatments and wood durability. The technological benefits of using drill bits with one major cutting edge, instead of standard drill bits with center-spiked tips and two major cutting edges, were not evident. A new graphical method was applied to present DR data and their spatial distribution in the poles. Future studies should focus on the impact of preservative treatments, thermal modification, and chemical modification on the DR and FR of wood. This may further elucidate the predictive value of DR and FR for wood properties.
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      Sustainable bioenergy for climate mitigation: developing drought-tolerant trees and grasses 

      Taylor, G.; Donnison, I .S.; Murphy-Bokern, D.; Morgante, M.; Bogeat-Triboulot, M.-B.; Bhalerao, R.; Hertzberg, M.; Polle, A.; Harfouche, A.; Alasia, F.; et al.
      Petoussi, V.Trebbi, D.Schwarz, K.Keurentjes, J. J. B.Centritto, M.Genty, B.Flexas, J.Grill, E.Salvi, S.Davies, W. J.
      Annals of Botany 2019; 124(4) p.513-520
      BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Bioenergy crops are central to climate mitigation strategies that utilize biogenic carbon, such as BECCS (bioenergy with carbon capture and storage), alongside the use of biomass for heat, power, liquid fuels and, in the future, biorefining to chemicals. Several promising lignocellulosic crops are emerging that have no food role - fast-growing trees and grasses - but are well suited as bioenergy feedstocks, including Populus, Salix, Arundo, Miscanthus, Panicum and Sorghum. SCOPE: These promising crops remain largely undomesticated and, until recently, have had limited germplasm resources. In order to avoid competition with food crops for land and nature conservation, it is likely that future bioenergy crops will be grown on marginal land that is not needed for food production and is of poor quality and subject to drought stress. Thus, here we define an ideotype for drought tolerance that will enable biomass production to be maintained in the face of moderate drought stress. This includes traits that can readily be measured in wide populations of several hundred unique genotypes for genome-wide association studies, alongside traits that are informative but can only easily be assessed in limited numbers or training populations that may be more suitable for genomic selection. Phenotyping, not genotyping, is now the major bottleneck for progress, since in all lignocellulosic crops studied extensive use has been made of next-generation sequencing such that several thousand markers are now available and populations are emerging that will enable rapid progress for drought-tolerance breeding. The emergence of novel technologies for targeted genotyping by sequencing are particularly welcome. Genome editing has already been demonstrated for Populus and offers significant potential for rapid deployment of drought-tolerant crops through manipulation of ABA receptors, as demonstrated in Arabidopsis, with other gene targets yet to be tested. CONCLUSIONS: Bioenergy is predicted to be the fastest-developing renewable energy over the coming decade and significant investment over the past decade has been made in developing genomic resources and in collecting wild germplasm from within the natural ranges of several tree and grass crops. Harnessing these resources for climate-resilient crops for the future remains a challenge but one that is likely to be successful.
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      Biological Durability of Sapling-Wood Products Used for Gardening and Outdoor Decoration 

      Brischke, Christian; Emmerich, Lukas; Nienaber, Dirk G.B.; Bollmus, Susanne
      Forests 2019; 10(12): Art. 1152
      Sapling-wood products from di erent wood species such as willow (Salix spp. L.) and Commonhazel (Corylus avellana L.) are frequently used for gardening and outdoor decoration purposes. Remaining bark is suggested to provide additional biological durability. Even for temporary outdoor use it seemed questionable that durability of juvenile sapwood can provide acceptably long service lives of horticultural products. Therefore, sapling-wood from seven European-grown wood species was submitted to laboratory and field durability tests. In field tests, specimens with and without bark were tested in comparison and submitted to di erently severe exposure situations, i.e., in-ground contact, and above-ground situations with and without water trapping. All materials under test were classified ‘not durable’ independently from any potential protective e ect of remaining bark, which contradicted their suitability for outdoor applications if multi-annual use is desired.
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      Transferability and Polymorphism of SSR Markers Located in Flavonoid Pathway Genes in Fragaria and Rubus Species 

      Lebedev, Vadim G.; Subbotina, Natalya M.; Maluchenko, Oleg P.; Lebedeva, Tatyana N.; Krutovsky, Konstantin V.; Shestibratov, Konstantin A.
      Genes 2020; 11(1)
      Strawberry (Fragaria) and raspberry (Rubus) are very popular crops, and improving their nutritional quality and disease resistance are important tasks in their breeding programs that are becoming increasingly based on use of functional DNA markers. We identified 118 microsatellite (simple sequence repeat-SSR) loci in the nucleotide sequences of flavonoid biosynthesis and pathogenesis-related genes and developed 24 SSR markers representing some of these structural and regulatory genes. These markers were used to assess the genetic diversity of 48 Fragaria and Rubus specimens, including wild species and rare cultivars, which differ in berry color, ploidy, and origin. We have demonstrated that a high proportion of the developed markers are transferable within and between Fragaria and Rubus genera and are polymorphic. Transferability and polymorphism of the SSR markers depended on location of their polymerase chain reaction (PCR) primer annealing sites and microsatellite loci in genes, respectively. High polymorphism of the SSR markers in regulatory flavonoid biosynthesis genes suggests their allelic variability that can be potentially associated with differences in flavonoid accumulation and composition. This set of SSR markers may be a useful molecular tool in strawberry and raspberry breeding programs for improvement anthocyanin related traits.
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      Mass spectrometry reveals the presence of specific set of epigenetic DNA modifications in the Norway spruce genome 

      Yakovlev, Igor A.; Gackowski, Daniel; Abakir, Abdulkadir; Viejo, Marcos; Ruzov, Alexey; Olinski, Ryszard; Starczak, Marta; Fossdal, Carl Gunnar; Krutovsky, Konstantin V.
      Scientific Reports 2019; 9(1): Art. 19314
      5-Methylcytosine (5mC) is an epigenetic modification involved in regulation of gene expression in metazoans and plants. Iron-(II)/α-ketoglutarate-dependent dioxygenases can oxidize 5mC to 5-hydroxymethylcytosine (5hmC), 5-formylcytosine (5fC) and 5-carboxylcytosine (5caC). Although these oxidized forms of 5mC may serve as demethylation intermediates or contribute to transcriptional regulation in animals and fungi, experimental evidence for their presence in plant genomes is ambiguous. Here, employing reversed-phase HPLC coupled with sensitive mass spectrometry, we demonstrated that, unlike 5caC, both 5hmC and 5fC are detectable in non-negligible quantities in the DNA of a conifer, Norway spruce. Remarkably, whereas 5hmC content of spruce DNA is approximately 100-fold lower relative to human colorectal carcinoma cells, the levels of both - 5fC and a thymine base modification, 5-hydroxymethyluracil, are comparable in these systems. We confirmed the presence of modified DNA bases by immunohistochemistry in Norway spruce buds based on peroxidase-conjugated antibodies and tyramide signal amplification. Our results reveal the presence of specific range of noncanonical DNA bases in conifer genomes implying potential roles for these modifications in plant development and homeostasis.
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      Multi-temporal RapidEye Tasselled Cap data for land cover classification 

      Raab, Christoph; Tonn, B.; Meißner, M.; Balkenhol, N.; Isselstein, J.
      European Journal of Remote Sensing 2019; 52(1) p.653-666
      Land cover mapping can be seen as a key element to understand the spatial distribution of habitats and thus to sustainable management of natural resources. Multi-temporal remote sensing data are a valuable data source for land cover mapping. However, the increased amount of data requires effective machine learning algorithms and data compression approaches. In this study, the Random Forest and C 5.0 classification algorithms were applied to (1) a multi-temporal Tasselled-Cap-transformed, (2) top of atmosphere and (3) surface reflectance RapidEye time-series. The overall accuracies ranged from 91.44% to 91.80%, with only minor differences between algorithms and datasets. The McNemar test showed, however, significant differences between the Tasselled-Cap-transformed and untransformed mapping results in most cases. The temporal profiles for the Tasselled-Cap-transformed RapidEye data indicated a good separability between considered classes. The phenological profiles of vegetated surfaces followed a typical green-up curve for the Greenness Tasselled-Cap-index. A permutation-based variable importance measure indicated that late autumn should be considered as most important phenological phase contributing to the classification model performance. The results suggested that the RapidEye Tasselled Cap Transformation, which was designed for agricultural applications, can be an effective data compression tool, suitable to map heterogeneous landscapes with no measurable negative impact on classification accuracy.
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      Reviews and syntheses: Agropedogenesis - humankind as the sixth soil-forming factor and attractors of agricultural soil degradation 

      Kuzyakov, Yakov; Zamanian, Kazem
      Biogeosciences 2019; 16(24) p.4783-4803
      Back to top Agricultural land covers 5.1×109 ha (ca. 50 % of potentially suitable land area), and agriculture has immense effects on soil formation and degradation. Although we have an advanced mechanistic understanding of individual degradation processes of soils under agricultural use, general concepts of agropedogenesis are absent. A unifying theory of soil development under agricultural practices, of agropedogenesis, is urgently needed. We introduce a theory of anthropedogenesis – soil development under the main factor “humankind” – the sixth factor of soil formation, and deepen it to encompass agropedogenesis as the most important direction of anthropedogenesis. The developed theory of agropedogenesis consists of (1) broadening the classical concept of factors→processes→properties→functions along with their feedbacks to the processes, (2) a new concept of attractors of soil degradation, (3) selection and analysis of master soil properties, (4) analysis of phase diagrams of master soil properties to identify thresholds and stages of soil degradation, and, finally, (5) a definition of the multidimensional attractor space of agropedogenesis. The main feature of anthropedogenesis is the narrowing of soil development to only one function (e.g. crop production for agropedogenesis), and this function is becoming the main soil-forming factor. The focus on only one function and the disregard of other functions inevitably lead to soil degradation. We show that the factor humankind dominates over the effects of the five natural soil-forming factors and that agropedogenesis is therefore much faster than natural soil formation. The direction of agropedogenesis is largely opposite to that of natural soil development and is thus usually associated with soil degradation. In contrast to natural pedogenesis leading to divergence of soil properties, agropedogenesis leads to their convergence because of the efforts to optimize conditions for crop production. Agricultural practices lead soil development toward a quasi-steady state with a predefined range of measured properties – attractors (an attractor is a minimal or maximal value of a soil property toward which the property will develop via long-term intensive agricultural use from any natural state). Based on phase diagrams and expert knowledge, we define a set of “master properties” (bulk density and macroaggregates, soil organic matter content, C:N ratio, pH and electrical conductivity – EC, microbial biomass and basal respiration) as well as soil depth (A and B horizons). These master properties are especially sensitive to land use and determine the other properties during agropedogenesis. Phase diagrams of master soil properties help identify thresholds and stages of soil degradation, each of which is characterized by one dominating process. Combining individual attractors in a multidimensional attractor space enables predicting the trajectory and the final state of agrogenic soil development and developing measures to combat soil degradation. In conclusion, the suggested new theory of anthro- and agropedogenesis is a prerequisite for merging various degradation processes into a general view and for understanding the functions of humankind not only as the sixth soil-forming factor but also as an ecosystem engineer optimizing its environment to fulfil a few desired functions.
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      Successional, spatial, and seasonal changes in seed rain in the Atlantic forest of southern Bahia, Brazil 

      Piotto, Daniel; Craven, Dylan; Montagnini, Florencia; Ashton, Mark; Oliver, Chadwick; Thomas, William Wayt
      PLOS ONE 2019; 14(12): Art. e0226474
      Seed arrival is a limiting factor for the regeneration of diverse tropical forests and may be an important mechanism that drives patterns of tree species' distribution. Here we quantify spatial and seasonal variation in seed rain of secondary forests in southern Bahia, Brazil. We also examine whether secondary forest age enhances seed dispersal and whether seed rain density and diversity in secondary forests decay with distance from mature forest. Across a chronosequence of 15 pairs of mature and secondary forests, 105 seed traps were installed and monitored for one year. We tested the effects of secondary forest age, distance from mature forest, and seasonality on monthly seed rain density, diversity, seed dispersal mode, and diaspore size. We found that secondary forest age had strong, positive effects on the diversity of seed rain, which was generally higher during the wet season. Moreover, contrasting patterns among diversity indices revealed that seeds of rare species occurred more often in 40 yr old secondary forests and mature forests. While the proportion of biotically and abiotically dispersed seeds did not change significantly with distance from mature forest across all forest age classes, we found that biotically dispersed seeds contributed disproportionately more to seed rain diversity. Our results emphasize the importance of biotic dispersal to enhance diversity during secondary succession and suggest that changes in secondary forest structure have the potential to enhance the diversity of tropical secondary forests, principally by increasing dispersal of rare species.
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      Radar vision in the mapping of forest biodiversity from space 

      Bae, Soyeon; Levick, Shaun R.; Heidrich, Lea; Magdon, Paul; Leutner, Benjamin F.; Wöllauer, Stephan; Serebryanyk, Alla; Nauss, Thomas; Krzystek, Peter; Gossner, Martin M.; et al.
      Schall, PeterHeibl, ChristophBässler, ClausDoerfler, InkenSchulze, Ernst-DetlefKrah, Franz-SebastianCulmsee, HeikeJung, KirstenHeurich, MarcoFischer, MarkusSeibold, SebastianThorn, SimonGerlach, TobiasHothorn, TorstenWeisser, Wolfgang W.Müller, Jörg
      Nature Communications 2019; 10(1)
      Recent progress in remote sensing provides much-needed, large-scale spatio-temporal information on habitat structures important for biodiversity conservation. Here we examine the potential of a newly launched satellite-borne radar system (Sentinel-1) to map the biodiversity of twelve taxa across five temperate forest regions in central Europe. We show that the sensitivity of radar to habitat structure is similar to that of airborne laser scanning (ALS), the current gold standard in the measurement of forest structure. Our models of different facets of biodiversity reveal that radar performs as well as ALS; median R² over twelve taxa by ALS and radar are 0.51 and 0.57 respectively for the first non-metric multidimensional scaling axes representing assemblage composition. We further demonstrate the promising predictive ability of radar-derived data with external validation based on the species composition of birds and saproxylic beetles. Establishing new area-wide biodiversity monitoring by remote sensing will require the coupling of radar data to stratified and standardized collected local species data
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      Structure Selectivity of Alkaline Periodate Oxidation on Lignocellulose for Facile Isolation of Cellulose Nanocrystals 

      Liu, Peiwen; Pang, Bo; Dechert, Sebastian; Zhang, Xizhou Cecily; Andreas, Loren B.; Fischer, Steffen; Meyer, Franc; Zhang, Kai
      Angewandte Chemie International Edition(58) p.2-10
      Reported here for the first time is the alkaline periodate oxidation of lignocelluloses for the selective isolation of cellulose nanocrystals (CNCs). With the high concentrations as a potassium salt at pH 10, periodate ions predominantly exist as dimeric orthoperiodate ions (H2 I2 O10 4- ). With reduced oxidizing activity in alkaline solutions, dimeric orthoperiodate ions preferentially oxidized non-ordered cellulose regions. The alkaline surroundings promoted the degradation of these oxidized cellulose chains by β-alkoxy fragmentation and generated CNCs. The obtained CNCs were uniform in size and generally contained carboxy groups. Furthermore, the reaction solution could be reused after regeneration of the periodate with ozone gas. This method allows direct production of CNCs from diverse sources, in particular lignocellulosic raw materials including sawdust (European beech and Scots pine), flax, and kenaf, in addition to microcrystalline cellulose and pulp.
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      Growth and Its Relationship to Individual Genetic Diversity of Mountain Hemlock (Tsuga mertensiana) at Alpine Treeline in Alaska: Combining Dendrochronology and Genomics 

      Johnson, Jeremy; Chhetri, Parveen; Krutovsky, Konstantin; Cairns, David
      Forests 2017; 8(11): Art. 418
      Globally, alpine treelines are characterized as temperature-limited environments with strong controls on tree growth. However, at local scales spatially heterogeneous environments generally have more variable impacts on individual patterns of tree growth. In addition to the landscape spatial heterogeneity there is local variability in individual tree genetic diversity (level of individual heterozygosity). It has been hypothesized that higher individual heterozygosity will result in more consistent patterns of growth. In this article, we combine genomics and dendrochronology to explore the relationship between individual genetic diversity and tree growth at a mountain hemlock (Tsuga mertensiana Bong. Carr) alpine treeline on the Kenai Peninsula, Alaska, USA.We correlated average observed individual heterozygosity with average tree-ring width and variance in tree-ring width within individuals to test the hypothesis that trees with higher individual heterozygosity will also have more consistent growth patterns, suggesting that they may be more resilient to climate and environmental fluctuations at the alpine treeline. Our results showed that there was no significant relationship between tree growth and individual heterozygosity. However, there was a significant positive relationship between average tree-ring width and variance in tree-ring width implying that overall, fast growing trees in stressful environments, such as the alpine treeline, grow unstably regardless of the level of individual heterozygosity.
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      Genetic and adaptive trait variation in seedlings of European beech provenances from Northern Germany 

      Müller, Markus; Finkeldey, Reiner
      Silvae Genetica 2016; 65(2) p.65-73
      European beech (Fagus sylvatica L.) will most likely be threatened by climate change. Therefore, more knowledge of its adaptation potential to changing environmental conditions is required. Several studies showed differences in adaptive traits for beech populations from across Europe, but there is also growing evidence for microevolutionary processes occurring within short geographic distances in this species, or even a lack of local adaptation. Hence, a more regional perspective for adaptation research in beech might be appropriate. Here, we investigated the performance (height, height increment and mortality) and genetic structure based on microsatellite markers of 2400 beech seedlings from provenances growing along a temperature and precipitation gradient in Northern Germany in a common garden experiment. Differences for all traits were found among provenances. Provenances from lower precipitation areas did not perform better than provenances from higher precipitation areas at the common garden site, which was located near the lower precipitation limit of beech. Further, neighboring provenances growing on either sandy or loamy soils showed more different adaptive trait variation than distant provenances. We detected minor genetic structure among provenances and a high genetic diversity within them. Thus, small-scale adaptive trait variation in beech can occur, despite low but significant genetic population structure among provenances.
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