1-20 von 1094 Publikationen

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      Key Components of Different Plant Defense Pathways Are Dispensable for Powdery Mildew Resistance of the Arabidopsis mlo2 mlo6 mlo12 Triple Mutant. 

      Kuhn, Hannah; Lorek, Justine; Kwaaitaal, Mark; Consonni, Chiara; Becker, Katia; Micali, Cristina; Ver Loren van Themaat, Emiel; Bednarek, Paweł; Raaymakers, Tom M.; Appiano, Michela; et al.
      Bai, YulingMeldau, DorotheaBaum, StephaniConrath, UweFeussner, IvoPanstruga, Ralph
      Frontiers in plant science 2017; 8: Art. 1006
      Loss of function mutations of particular plant MILDEW RESISTANCE LOCUS O (MLO) genes confer durable and broad-spectrum penetration resistance against powdery mildew fungi. Here, we combined genetic, transcriptomic and metabolomic analyses to explore the defense mechanisms in the fully resistant Arabidopsis thaliana mlo2 mlo6 mlo12 triple mutant. We found that this genotype unexpectedly overcomes the requirement for indolic antimicrobials and defense-related secretion, which are critical for incomplete resistance of mlo2 single mutants. Comparative microarray-based transcriptome analysis of mlo2 mlo6 mlo12 mutants and wild type plants upon Golovinomyces orontii inoculation revealed an increased and accelerated accumulation of many defense-related transcripts. Despite the biotrophic nature of the interaction, this included the non-canonical activation of a jasmonic acid/ethylene-dependent transcriptional program. In contrast to a non-adapted powdery mildew pathogen, the adapted powdery mildew fungus is able to defeat the accumulation of defense-relevant indolic metabolites in a MLO protein-dependent manner. We suggest that a broad and fast activation of immune responses in mlo2 mlo6 mlo12 plants can compensate for the lack of single or few defense pathways. In addition, our results point to a role of Arabidopsis MLO2, MLO6, and MLO12 in enabling defense suppression during invasion by adapted powdery mildew fungi.
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      Driving factors and temporal fluctuation of Collembola communities and reproductive mode across forest types and regions. 

      Pollierer, Melanie M.; Scheu, Stefan
      Ecology and evolution 2017-06; 7(12) p.4390-4403
      Despite the major role of Collembola in forest soil animal food webs, ecological and evolutionary determinants of their community composition are not well understood. We investigated abundance, community structure, life forms, and reproductive mode of Collembola in four different forest types (coniferous, young managed beech, old managed beech, and unmanaged beech forests) representing different management intensities. Forest types were replicated within three regions across Germany: the Schorfheide-Chorin, the Hainich, and the Swabian Alb, differing in geology, altitude, and climate. To account for temporal variation, samples were taken twice with an interval of 3 years. To identify driving factors of Collembola community structure, we applied structural equation modeling, including an index of forest management intensity, abiotic and biotic factors such as pH, C-to-N ratio of leaf litter, microbial biomass, and fungal-to-bacterial ratio. Collembola abundance, biomass, and community composition differed markedly between years, with most pronounced differences in the Schorfheide, the region with the harshest climatic conditions. There, temporal fluctuations of parthenogenetic Collembola were significantly higher than in the other regions. In the year with the more favorable conditions, parthenogenetic species flourished, with their abundance depending mainly on abiotic, density-independent factors. This is in line with the "Structured Resource Theory of Sexual Reproduction," stating that parthenogenetic species are favored if density-independent factors, such as desiccation, frost or flooding, prevail. In contrast, sexual species in the same year were mainly influenced by resource quality-related factors such as the fungal-to-bacterial ratio and the C-to-N ratio of leaf litter. The influence of forest management intensity on abundances was low, indicating that disturbance through forest management plays a minor role. Accordingly, differences in community composition were more pronounced between regions than between different forest types, pointing to the importance of regional factors.
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      Habitat selection by Eurasian lynx (Lynx lynx) is primarily driven by avoidance of human activity during day and prey availability during night. 

      Filla, Marc; Premier, Joseph; Magg, Nora; Dupke, Claudia; Khorozyan, Igor; Waltert, Matthias; Bufka, Luděk; Heurich, Marco
      Ecology and evolution 2017-08; 7(16) p.6367-6381
      The greatest threat to the protected Eurasian lynx (Lynx lynx) in Central Europe is human-induced mortality. As the availability of lynx prey often peaks in human-modified areas, lynx have to balance successful prey hunting with the risk of encounters with humans. We hypothesized that lynx minimize this risk by adjusting habitat choices to the phases of the day and over seasons. We predicted that (1) due to avoidance of human-dominated areas during daytime, lynx range use is higher at nighttime, that (2) prey availability drives lynx habitat selection at night, whereas high cover, terrain inaccessibility, and distance to human infrastructure drive habitat selection during the day, and that (3) habitat selection also differs between seasons, with altitude being a dominant factor in winter. To test these hypotheses, we analyzed telemetry data (GPS, VHF) of 10 lynx in the Bohemian Forest Ecosystem (Germany, Czech Republic) between 2005 and 2013 using generalized additive mixed models and considering various predictor variables. Night ranges exceeded day ranges by more than 10%. At night, lynx selected open habitats, such as meadows, which are associated with high ungulate abundance. By contrast, during the day, lynx selected habitats offering dense understorey cover and rugged terrain away from human infrastructure. In summer, land-cover type greatly shaped lynx habitats, whereas in winter, lynx selected lower altitudes. We concluded that open habitats need to be considered for more realistic habitat models and contribute to future management and conservation (habitat suitability, carrying capacity) of Eurasian lynx in Central Europe.
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      Possible mechanisms underlying abundance and diversity responses of nematode communities to plant diversity 

      Cortois, Roeland; Veen, G. F. Ciska; Duyts, Henk; Abbas, Maike; Strecker, Tanja; Kostenko, Olga; Eisenhauer, Nico; Scheu, Stefan; Gleixner, Gerd; De Deyn, Gerlinde B.; et al.
      van der Putten, Wim H.
      Ecosphere 2017; 8(5): Art. e01719
      Plant diversity is known to influence the abundance and diversity of belowground biota; however, patterns are not well predictable and there is still much unknown about the driving mechanisms. We analyzed changes in soil nematode community composition as affected by long-term manipulations of plant species and functional group diversity in a field experiment with plant species diversity controlled by sowing a range of 1–60 species mixtures and controlling non-sown species by hand weeding. Nematode communities contain a variety of species feeding on bacteria, fungi, plants, invertebrates, while some are omnivorous. We analyzed responses of nematode abundance and diversity to plant species and functional diversity, and used structural equation modeling (SEM) to explore the possible mechanisms underlying the observed patterns. The abundance of individuals of all nematode feeding types, except for predatory nematodes, increased with both plant species and plant functional group diversity. The abundance of microbial-feeding nematodes was related positively to aboveground plant community biomass, whereas abundance of plant-feeding nematodes was related positively to shoot C:N ratio. The abundance of predatory nematodes, in turn, was positively related to numbers of plant-feeding nematodes, but not to the abundance of microbial feeders. Interestingly, the numbers of plant-feeding nematodes per unit root mass were lowest in the high-diversity plant communities, pointing at reduced exposure to belowground herbivores when plants grow in species-diverse communities. Taxon richness of plant-feeding and microbialfeeding nematodes increased with plant species and plant functional group diversity. Increasing plant functional group diversity also enhanced taxon richness of predatory nematodes. The SEM suggests that bottom-up control effects of plant species and plant functional group diversity on abundance of nematodes in the various feeding types predominantly involve mechanistic linkages related to plant quality instead of plant quantity; especially, C:N ratios of the shoot tissues, and/or effects of plants on the soil habitat, rather than shoot quantity explained nematode abundance. Although aboveground plant properties may only partly serve as a proxy for belowground resource quality and quantity, our results encourage further studies on nematode responses to variations in plant species and plant functional diversity in relation to both quantity and quality of the belowground resources.
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      FnrL and Three Dnr Regulators Are Used for the Metabolic Adaptation to Low Oxygen Tension in Dinoroseobacter shibae. 

      Ebert, Matthias; Laaß, Sebastian; Thürmer, Andrea; Roselius, Louisa; Eckweiler, Denitsa; Daniel, Rolf; Härtig, Elisabeth; Jahn, Dieter
      Frontiers in microbiology 2017; 8: Art. 642
      The heterotrophic marine bacterium Dinoroseobacter shibae utilizes aerobic respiration and anaerobic denitrification supplemented with aerobic anoxygenic photosynthesis for energy generation. The aerobic to anaerobic transition is controlled by four Fnr/Crp family regulators in a unique cascade-type regulatory network. FnrL is utilizing an oxygen-sensitive Fe-S cluster for oxygen sensing. Active FnrL is inducing most operons encoding the denitrification machinery and the corresponding heme biosynthesis. Activation of gene expression of the high oxygen affinity cbb3-type and repression of the low affinity aa3-type cytochrome c oxidase is mediated by FnrL. Five regulator genes including dnrE and dnrF are directly controlled by FnrL. Multiple genes of the universal stress protein (USP) and cold shock response are further FnrL targets. DnrD, most likely sensing NO via a heme cofactor, co-induces genes of denitrification, heme biosynthesis, and the regulator genes dnrE and dnrF. DnrE is controlling genes for a putative Na+/H+ antiporter, indicating a potential role of a Na+ gradient under anaerobic conditions. The formation of the electron donating primary dehydrogenases is coordinated by FnrL and DnrE. Many plasmid encoded genes were DnrE regulated. DnrF is controlling directly two regulator genes including the Fe-S cluster biosynthesis regulator iscR, genes of the electron transport chain and the glutathione metabolism. The genes for nitrate reductase and CO dehydrogenase are repressed by DnrD and DnrF. Both regulators in concert with FnrL are inducing the photosynthesis genes. One of the major denitrification operon control regions, the intergenic region between nirS and nosR2, contains one Fnr/Dnr binding site. Using regulator gene mutant strains, lacZ-reporter gene fusions in combination with promoter mutagenesis, the function of the single Fnr/Dnr binding site for FnrL-, DnrD-, and partly DnrF-dependent nirS and nosR2 transcriptional activation was shown. Overall, the unique regulatory network of the marine bacterium D. shibae for the transition from aerobic to anaerobic growth composed of four Crp/Fnr family regulators was elucidated.
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      Melicope stonei, section Pelea (Rutaceae), a new species from Kaua'i, Hawaiian Islands: with notes on its distribution, ecology, conservation status, and phylogenetic placement. 

      Wood, Kenneth R.; Appelhans, Marc S.; Wagner, Warren L.
      PhytoKeys(83) p.119-132
      Melicope stonei K.R. Wood, Appelhans & W.L. Wagner (section Pelea, Rutaceae), a new endemic tree species from Kaua'i, Hawaiian Islands, is described and illustrated with notes on its distribution, ecology, conservation status, and phylogenetic placement. The new species differs from its Hawaiian congeners by its unique combination of distinct carpels and ramiflorous inflorescences arising on stems below the leaves; plants monoecious; leaf blades (5-)8-30 × (4-)6-11 cm, with abaxial surface densely tomentose, especially along midribs; and very long petioles of up to 9 cm. Since its discovery in 1988, 94 individuals have been documented and are confined to a 1.5 km2 region of unique high canopy mesic forest. Melicope stonei represents a new Critically Endangered (CR) single island endemic species on Kaua'i.
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      Research Priorities for the Conservation and Sustainable Governance of Andean Forest Landscapes 

      Mathez-Stiefel, Sarah-Lan; Peralvo, Manuel; Báez, Selene; Rist, Stephan; Buytaert, Wouter; Cuesta, Francisco; Fadrique, Belén; Feeley, Kenneth J.; Groth, Aaron A. P.; Homeier, Jürgen; et al.
      Llambí, Luis D.Locatelli, BrunoSandoval, Maria Fernanda LópezMalizia, AgustinaYoung, Kenneth R.
      Mountain Research and Development 2017; 37(3) p.323-339
      The long-term survival of Andean forest landscapes (AFL) and of their capacity to contribute to sustainable development in a context of global change requires integrated adaptation and mitigation responses informed by a thorough understanding of the dynamic and complex interactions between their ecological and social components. This article proposes a research agenda that can help guide AFL research efforts for the next 15 years. The agenda was developed between July 2015 and June 2016 through a series of workshops in Ecuador, Peru, and Switzerland and involved 48 researchers and development experts working on AFL from different disciplinary perspectives. Based on our review of current research and identification of pressing challenges for the conservation and sustainable governance of AFL, we propose a conceptual framework that draws on sustainability sciences and social–ecological systems research, and we identify a set of high-priority research goals and objectives organized into 3 broad categories: systems knowledge, target knowledge, and transformation knowledge. This paper is intended to be a reference for a broad array of actors engaged in policy, research, and implementation in the Andean region. We hope it will trigger collaborative research initiatives for the continued conservation and sustainable governance of AFL.
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      Changes in the genetic structure of an invasive earthworm species ( Lumbricus terrestris , Lumbricidae) along an urban – rural gradient in North America 

      Klein, Andreas; Cameron, Erin K.; Heimburger, Bastian; Eisenhauer, Nico; Scheu, Stefan; Schaefer, Ina
      Applied Soil Ecology 2017; 120 p.265-272
      European earthworms were introduced to North America by European settlers about 400 years ago. Human-mediated introductions significantly contributed to the spread of European species, which commonly are used as fishing bait and are often disposed deliberately in the wild. We investigated the genetic structure of Lumbricus terrestris in a 100 km range south of Calgary, Canada, an area that likely was devoid of this species two decades ago. Genetic relationships among populations, gene flow, and migration events among populations were investigated using seven microsatellite markers and the mitochondrial 16S rDNA gene. Earthworms were collected at different distances from the city and included fishing baits from three different bait distributors. The results suggest that field populations in Alberta established rather recently and that bait and field individuals in the study area have a common origin. Genetic variance within populations decreased outside of the urban area, and the most distant populations likely originated from a single introduction event. The results emphasise the utility of molecular tools to understand the spatial extent and connectivity of populations of exotic species, in particular soil-dwelling species, that invade native ecosystems and to obtain information on the origin of populations. Such information is crucial for developing management and prevention strategies to limit and control establishment of non-native earthworms in North America.
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      Older fathers' children have lower evolutionary fitness across four centuries and in four populations. 

      Arslan, Ruben C; Willführ, Kai P; Frans, Emma M; Verweij, Karin J H; Bürkner, Paul-Christian; Myrskylä, Mikko; Voland, Eckart; Almqvist, Catarina; Zietsch, Brendan P; Penke, Lars
      Proceedings. Biological sciences 2017; 284(1862)
      Higher paternal age at offspring conception increases de novo genetic mutations. Based on evolutionary genetic theory we predicted older fathers' children, all else equal, would be less likely to survive and reproduce, i.e. have lower fitness. In sibling control studies, we find support for negative paternal age effects on offspring survival and reproductive success across four large populations with an aggregate N > 1.4 million. Three populations were pre-industrial (1670-1850) Western populations and showed negative paternal age effects on infant survival and offspring reproductive success. In twentieth-century Sweden, we found minuscule paternal age effects on survival, but found negative effects on reproductive success. Effects survived tests for key competing explanations, including maternal age and parental loss, but effects varied widely over different plausible model specifications and some competing explanations such as diminishing paternal investment and epigenetic mutations could not be tested. We can use our findings to aid in predicting the effect increasingly older parents in today's society will have on their children's survival and reproductive success. To the extent that we succeeded in isolating a mutation-driven effect of paternal age, our results can be understood to show that de novo mutations reduce offspring fitness across populations and time periods.
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      Prevalence of Flp Pili-Encoding Plasmids in Cutibacterium acnes Isolates Obtained from Prostatic Tissue. 

      Davidsson, Sabina; Carlsson, Jessica; Mölling, Paula; Gashi, Natyra; Andrén, Ove; Andersson, Swen-Olof; Brzuszkiewicz, Elzbieta; Poehlein, Anja; Al-Zeer, Munir A; Brinkmann, Volker; et al.
      Scavenius, CarstenNazipi, SevenSöderquist, BoBrüggemann, Holger
      Frontiers in microbiology 2017; 8 p.2241-2241
      Inflammation is one of the hallmarks of prostate cancer. The origin of inflammation is unknown, but microbial infections are suspected to play a role. In previous studies, the Gram-positive, low virulent bacterium Cutibacterium (formerly Propionibacterium) acnes was frequently isolated from prostatic tissue. It is unclear if the presence of the bacterium represents a true infection or a contamination. Here we investigated Cutibacterium acnes type II, also called subspecies defendens, which is the most prevalent type among prostatic C. acnes isolates. Genome sequencing of type II isolates identified large plasmids in several genomes. The plasmids are highly similar to previously identified linear plasmids of type I C. acnes strains associated with acne vulgaris. A PCR-based analysis revealed that 28.4% (21 out of 74) of all type II strains isolated from cancerous prostates carry a plasmid. The plasmid shows signatures for conjugative transfer. In addition, it contains a gene locus for tight adherence (tad) that is predicted to encode adhesive Flp (fimbrial low-molecular weight protein) pili. In subsequent experiments a tad locus-encoded putative pilin subunit was identified in the surface-exposed protein fraction of plasmid-positive C. acnes type II strains by mass spectrometry, indicating that the tad locus is functional. Additional plasmid-encoded proteins were detected in the secreted protein fraction, including two signal peptide-harboring proteins; the corresponding genes are specific for type II C. acnes, thus lacking from plasmid-positive type I C. acnes strains. Further support for the presence of Flp pili in C. acnes type II was provided by electron microscopy, revealing cell appendages in tad locus-positive strains. Our study provides new insight in the most prevalent prostatic subspecies of C. acnes, subsp. defendens, and indicates the existence of Flp pili in plasmid-positive strains. Such pili may support colonization and persistent infection of human prostates by C. acnes.
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      HgtSIM: a simulator for horizontal gene transfer (HGT) in microbial communities. 

      Song, Weizhi; Steensen, Kerrin; Thomas, Torsten
      PeerJ 2017; 5: Art. e4015
      The development and application of metagenomic approaches have provided an opportunity to study and define horizontal gene transfer (HGT) on the level of microbial communities. However, no current metagenomic data simulation tools offers the option to introduce defined HGT within a microbial community. Here, we present HgtSIM, a pipeline to simulate HGT event among microbial community members with user-defined mutation levels. It was developed for testing and benchmarking pipelines for recovering HGTs from complex microbial datasets. HgtSIM is implemented in Python3 and is freely available at: https://github.com/songweizhi/HgtSIM.
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      To err is (perfectly) human: behavioural and neural correlates of error processing and perfectionism. 

      Barke, Antonia; Bode, Stefan; Dechent, Peter; Schmidt-Samoa, Carsten; Van Heer, Christina; Stahl, Jutta
      Social cognitive and affective neuroscience 2017; 12(10) p.1647-1657
      The attitude towards one's own imperfection strongly varies between individuals. Here, we investigated variations in error-related activity depending on two sub-traits of perfectionism, Personal Standard Perfectionism (PSP) and Evaluative Concern Perfectionism (ECP) in a large scale functional magnetic resonance imaging study (N = 75) using a digit-flanker task. Participants with higher PSP scores showed both more post-error slowing and more neural activity in the medial-frontal gyrus including anterior cingulate cortex after errors. Interestingly, high-EC perfectionists with low PSP showed no post-error slowing and the highest activity in the middle frontal gyrus, whereas high-EC perfectionists with high PSP showed the lowest activity in this brain area and more post-error slowing. Our findings are in line with the hypothesis that perfectionists with high concerns but low standards avoid performance monitoring to avoid the worry-inducing nature of detecting personal failure and the anticipation of poor evaluation by others. However, the stronger goal-oriented performance motivation of perfectionists with high concerns and high standards may have led to less avoidance of error processing and a more intense involvement with the imperfect behaviour, which is essential for improving future performance.
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      Moderating Effects of Alexithymia on Associations between the Therapeutic Alliance and the Outcome of Brief Psychodynamic-Interpersonal Psychotherapy for Multisomatoform Disorder 

      Probst, Thomas; Sattel, Heribert; Gündel, Harald; Henningsen, Peter; Kruse, Johannes; Schneider, Gudrun; Lahmann, Claas
      Frontiers in Psychiatry 2017; 8: Art. 261
      This secondary analysis of a trial on brief psychodynamic-interpersonal therapy (PIT) for patients with multisomatoform disorder investigated whether alexithymia moderates the associations between the therapeutic alliance and the outcome of PIT and whether moderating effects of alexithymia remain significant when controlling for depression. Eighty-three patients with multisomatoform disorder receiving PIT were statistically analyzed. Moderation analyses were performed with the SPSS macro PROCESS. The primary outcome (Y), self-reported physical quality of life at 9-month after the end of PIT, was measured with the physical component summary (PCS) of the SF-36 Health Survey. The potential moderator (M) alexithymia was operationalized with the Toronto Alexithymia Scale (TAS-20) at pre-treatment and the predictor (X) the therapeutic alliance was rated by both patients and therapists via the Helping Alliance Questionnaire (HAQ) at the end of PIT. Moreover, the PCS at pre-treatment functioned as covariate in all moderation models. When the patients’ alliance ratings were analyzed, alexithymia did not moderate associations between the alliance and the outcome. When the therapists’ alliance ratings were evaluated, alexithymia moderated the relationship between the alliance and the outcome (p < 0.05): a stronger alliance in the therapists’ perspective was beneficial for the outcome only for patients scoring above 61 on the TAS-20. This moderating effect of alexithymia was, however, not statistically significant anymore when adding the pre-treatment depression scores (PHQ-9) as a covariate to the moderation model. The results underline the importance of a good therapists’ view of the alliance when treating alexithymic patients and highlight the complex interaction between alexithymia and depression. Future studies are needed to extend the scope of research regarding which psychotherapeutic mechanisms of change are beneficial for which patients.
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      Linking Compositional and Functional Predictions to Decipher the Biogeochemical Significance in DFAA Turnover of Abundant Bacterioplankton Lineages in the North Sea. 

      Wemheuer, Bernd; Wemheuer, Franziska; Meier, Dimitri; Billerbeck, Sara; Giebel, Helge-Ansgar; Simon, Meinhard; Scherber, Christoph; Daniel, Rolf
      Microorganisms 2017; 5(4)
      Deciphering the ecological traits of abundant marine bacteria is a major challenge in marine microbial ecology. In the current study, we linked compositional and functional predictions to elucidate such traits for abundant bacterioplankton lineages in the North Sea. For this purpose, we investigated entire and active bacterioplankton composition along a transect ranging from the German Bight to the northern North Sea by pyrotag sequencing of bacterial 16S rRNA genes and transcripts. Functional profiles were inferred from 16S rRNA data using Tax4Fun. Bacterioplankton communities were dominated by well-known marine lineages including clusters/genera that are affiliated with the Roseobacter group and the Flavobacteria. Variations in community composition and function were significantly explained by measured environmental and microbial properties. Turnover of dissolved free amino acids (DFAA) showed the strongest correlation to community composition and function. We applied multinomial models, which enabled us to identify bacterial lineages involved in DFAA turnover. For instance, the genus Planktomarina was more abundant at higher DFAA turnover rates, suggesting its vital role in amino acid degradation. Functional predictions further indicated that Planktomarina is involved in leucine and isoleucine degradation. Overall, our results provide novel insights into the biogeochemical significance of abundant bacterioplankton lineages in the North Sea.
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      Neutral lipid fatty acid composition as trait and constraint in Collembola evolution. 

      Chen, Ting-Wen; Sandmann, Philipp; Schaefer, Ina; Scheu, Stefan
      Ecology and Evolution 2017; 7(22) p.9624-9638
      Functional traits determine the occurrence of species along environmental gradients and their coexistence with other species. Understanding how traits evolved among coexisting species helps to infer community assembly processes. We propose fatty acid composition in consumer tissue as a functional trait related to both food resources and physiological functions of species. We measured phylogenetic signal in fatty acid profiles of 13 field-sampled Collembola (springtail) species and then combined the data with published fatty acid profiles of another 24 species. Collembola fatty acid profiles generally showed phylogenetic signal, with related species resembling each other. Long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids, related to physiological functions, demonstrated phylogenetic signal. In contrast, most food resource biomarker fatty acids and the ratios between bacterial, fungal, and plant biomarker fatty acids exhibited no phylogenetic signal. Presumably, fatty acids related to physiological functions have been constrained during Collembola evolutionary history: Species with close phylogenetic affinity experienced similar environments during divergence, while niche partitioning in food resources among closely related species favored species coexistence. Measuring phylogenetic signal in ecologically relevant traits of coexisting species provides an evolutionary perspective to contemporary assembly processes of ecological communities. Integrating phylogenetic comparative methods with community phylogenetic and trait-based approaches may compensate for the limitations of each method when used alone and improve understanding of processes driving and maintaining assembly patterns.
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      Antimicrobial Drimane Sesquiterpenes Contribute to Balanced Antagonism but Do Not Structure Bacterial and Fungal Endophytes in the African Pepper Bark Tree Warburgia ugandensis 

      Drage, Sigrid; Mitter, Birgit; Engelmeier, Doris; Chobot, Vladimir; Gorfer, Markus; Muchugi, Alice; Jamnadass, Ramni H.; Sessitsch, Angela; Hadacek, Franz
      Frontiers in Ecology and Evolution 2017; 5: Art. 138
      The African pepper bark tree,Warburgia ugandensis, accumulates antimicrobial drimane sesquiterpenes in all of its organs. One hypothesis states that plant defense compounds determine endophyte community structure. Another hypothesis suggests that they just facilitate the endophytic lifestyle by exerting a balanced antagonism. To explore this, a representative selection of endophytic bacterial and fungal isolates from this tree species was assayed together with six non-endophytic strains to determine their tolerance and susceptibility to the root and leaf extract fraction containing high and low drimane sesquiterpene amounts respectively. Inhibitory effects were explored by assessing both growth and growth efficiency, the latter of which relates respiratory activity to growth. The susceptibility of the tested strains showed considerable variation and the obtained patterns did not allow a clear distinction between root and leaf endophytes as well as endophytes and non-endophytes. In addition, all strains were also assayed against juglone, an antimicrobial and redox-active aromatic naphthoquinone. A comparison of differential pulse voltammograms and efficacy in variants of the deoxyribose degradation assay revealed that drimane sesquiterpenes possess anti- and pro-oxidant activities that compare to those of juglone. Leaf endophytes showed higher resistance to oxidative stress than root endophytes, quite contrary to the actual exposure. The obtained results support the notion that structural diverse plant defense compounds can contribute to a balanced antagonismagainst but not to structuring of endophyte communities. Oxidative stress seems to be involved in generating this effect albeit it cannot explain it alone.
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      Implicit Theory of Mind - An overview of current replications and non-replications. 

      Kulke, Louisa; Rakoczy, Hannes
      Data in brief 2018-02; 16 p.101-104
      The current dataset contains a qualitative summary of (non-)replication studies of implicit Theory of Mind paradigms. It summarizes for each paradigm, how many replications, partial replications and non-replications were identified and how many of them were published or unpublished. Furthermore, descriptive data and sample sizes are reported. The dataset provides a qualitative overview of the published and unpublished findings in implicit Theory of Mind research.
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      Environmental enrichment accelerates ocular dominance plasticity in mouse visual cortex whereas transfer to standard cages resulted in a rapid loss of increased plasticity. 

      Kalogeraki, Evgenia; Pielecka-Fortuna, Justyna; Löwel, Siegrid
      PloS one 2017; 12(10): Art. e0186999
      In standard cage (SC) raised mice, experience-dependent ocular dominance (OD) plasticity in the primary visual cortex (V1) rapidly declines with age: in postnatal day 25-35 (critical period) mice, 4 days of monocular deprivation (MD) are sufficient to induce OD-shifts towards the open eye; thereafter, 7 days of MD are needed. Beyond postnatal day 110, even 14 days of MD failed to induce OD-plasticity in mouse V1. In contrast, mice raised in a so-called "enriched environment" (EE), exhibit lifelong OD-plasticity. EE-mice have more voluntary physical exercise (running wheels), and experience more social interactions (bigger housing groups) and more cognitive stimulation (regularly changed labyrinths or toys). Whether experience-dependent shifts of V1-activation happen faster in EE-mice and how long the plasticity promoting effect would persist after transferring EE-mice back to SCs has not yet been investigated. To this end, we used intrinsic signal optical imaging to visualize V1-activation i) before and after MD in EE-mice of different age groups (from 1-9 months), and ii) after transferring mice back to SCs after postnatal day 130. Already after 2 days of MD, and thus much faster than in SC-mice, EE-mice of all tested age groups displayed a significant OD-shift towards the open eye. Transfer of EE-mice to SCs immediately abolished OD-plasticity: already after 1 week of SC-housing and MD, OD-shifts could no longer be visualized. In an attempt to rescue abolished OD-plasticity of these mice, we either administered the anti-depressant fluoxetine (in drinking water) or supplied a running wheel in the SCs. OD-plasticity was only rescued for the running wheel- mice. Altogether our results show that raising mice in less deprived environments like large EE-cages strongly accelerates experience-dependent changes in V1-activation compared to the impoverished SC-raising. Furthermore, preventing voluntary physical exercise of EE-mice in adulthood immediately precludes OD-shifts in V1.
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      A fossil species of the enigmatic early polypod fern genus Cystodium (Cystodiaceae) in Cretaceous amber from Myanmar. 

      Regalado, Ledis; Schmidt, Alexander R.; Appelhans, Marc S.; Ilsemann, Bork; Schneider, Harald; Krings, Michael; Heinrichs, Jochen
      Scientific reports 2017-11-06; 7(1): Art. 14615
      The monospecific fern genus Cystodium (Cystodiaceae; Polypodiales) occurs exclusively in the tropical forests of the Malay Archipelago, the Admiralty Islands, the Louisiade Archipelago, and the Solomon Islands. Divergence time estimates suggest that the genus originated in the Mesozoic; however, fossil evidence to validate this suggestion has been lacking. Amber from Myanmar (Burmese amber) is an important source of new information on the diversity of vascular cryptogams in the Cretaceous. This paper describes the fossil taxon Cystodium sorbifolioides nov. sp. based on a fragment of a fertile leaf preserved in Burmese amber that represents the first fossil evidence of the family Cystodiaceae. Cystodium sorbifolioides is used to obtain a minimum age estimate for the Cystodiaceae and the closely related, monogeneric Lonchitidaceae and Lindsaeaceae. The fossil strengthens the hypothesis that the forest ecosystems of Malesia and Melanesia represent refugia for many tropical plant lineages that originated in the Cretaceous.
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      Duplex Alu Screening for Degraded DNA of Skeletal Human Remains 

      Haß, Fabian; Hummel, Susanne; Piskurek, Oliver
      Diversity 2017; 9(4): Art. 48
      The human-specific Alu elements, belonging to the class of Short INterspersed Elements (SINEs), have been shown to be a powerful tool for population genetic studies. An earlier study in this department showed that it was possible to analyze Alu presence/absence in 3000-year-old skeletal human remains from the Bronze Age Lichtenstein cave in Lower Saxony, Germany. We developed duplex Alu screening PCRs with flanking primers for two Alu elements, each combined with a single internal Alu primer. By adding an internal primer, the approximately 400–500 bp presence signals of Alu elements can be detected within a range of less than 200 bp. Thus, our PCR approach is suited for highly fragmented ancient DNA samples, whereas NGS analyses frequently are unable to handle repetitive elements. With this analysis system, we examined remains of 12 individuals from the Lichtenstein cave with different degrees of DNA degradation. The duplex PCRs showed fully informative amplification results for all of the chosen Alu loci in eight of the 12 samples. Our analysis system showed that Alu presence/absence analysis is possible in samples with different degrees of DNA degradation and it reduces the amount of valuable skeletal material needed by a factor of four, as compared with a singleplex approach.
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