Recent Submissions

  • Journal Article

    A framework for conceptualizing dimensions of social organization in mammals 

    Prox, Lea; Farine, Damien
    Ecology and Evolution p.1-17
    Mammalian societies represent many different types of social systems. While some aspects of social systems have been extensively studied, there is little consensus on how to conceptualize social organization across species. Here, we present a framework describing eight dimensions of social organization to capture its diversity across mammalian societies. The framework uses simple information that is clearly separated from the three other aspects of social systems: social structure, care system, and mating system. By applying our framework across 208 species of all mammalian taxa, we find a rich multidimensional landscape of social organization. Correlation analysis reveals that the dimensions have relatively high independence, suggesting that social systems are able to evolve different aspects of social behavior without being tied to particular traits. Applying a clustering algorithm allows us to identify the relative importance of key dimensions on patterns of social organization. Finally, mapping mating system onto these clusters shows that social organization represents a distinct aspect of social systems. In the future, this framework will aid reporting on important aspects of natural history in species and facilitate comparative analyses, which ultimately will provide the ability to generate new insights into the primary drivers of social patterns and evolution of sociality.
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  • Journal Article

    A Fosmid-Based System for the Generation of Recombinant Cercopithecine Alphaherpesvirus 2 Encoding Reporter Genes 

    Chukhno, Ekaterina; Gärtner, Sabine; Rahman Siregar, Abdul; Mehr, Alexander; Wende, Marie; Petkov, Stoyan; Götting, Jasper; Dhingra, Akshay; Schulz, Thomas; Pöhlmann, Stefan; et al.
    Winkler, Michael
    Viruses 2019; 11(11): Art. 1026
    The transmission of Macacine alphaherpesvirus 1 (McHV-1) from macaques, the natural host, to humans causes encephalitis. In contrast, human infection with Cercopithecine alphaherpesvirus 2 (CeHV-2), a closely related alphaherpesvirus from African vervet monkeys and baboons, has not been reported and it is believed that CeHV-2 is apathogenic in humans. The reasons for the differential neurovirulence of McHV-1 and CeHV-2 have not been explored on a molecular level, in part due to the absence of systems for the production of recombinant viruses. Here, we report the generation of a fosmid-based system for rescue of recombinant CeHV-2. Moreover, we show that, in this system, recombineering can be used to equip CeHV-2 with reporter genes. The recombinant CeHV-2 viruses replicated with the same efficiency as uncloned, wt virus and allowed the identification of cell lines that are highly susceptible to CeHV-2 infection. Collectively, we report a system that allows rescue and genetic modification of CeHV-2 and likely other alphaherpesviruses. This system should aid future analysis of CeHV-2 biology.
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  • Journal Article

    Passing the Message: Representation Transfer in Modular Balanced Networks 

    Zajzon, Barna; Mahmoudian, Sepehr; Morrison, Abigail; Duarte, Renato
    Frontiers in Computational Neuroscience 2019; 13: Art. 79
    Neurobiological systems rely on hierarchical and modular architectures to carry out intricate computations using minimal resources. A prerequisite for such systems to operate adequately is the capability to reliably and efficiently transfer information across multiple modules. Here, we study the features enabling a robust transfer of stimulus representations in modular networks of spiking neurons, tuned to operate in a balanced regime. To capitalize on the complex, transient dynamics that such networks exhibit during active processing, we apply reservoir computing principles and probe the systems' computational efficacy with specific tasks. Focusing on the comparison of random feed-forward connectivity and biologically inspired topographic maps, we find that, in a sequential set-up, structured projections between the modules are strictly necessary for information to propagate accurately to deeper modules. Such mappings not only improve computational performance and efficiency, they also reduce response variability, increase robustness against interference effects, and boost memory capacity. We further investigate how information from two separate input streams is integrated and demonstrate that it is more advantageous to perform non-linear computations on the input locally, within a given module, and subsequently transfer the result downstream, rather than transferring intermediate information and performing the computation downstream. Depending on how information is integrated early on in the system, the networks achieve similar task-performance using different strategies, indicating that the dimensionality of the neural responses does not necessarily correlate with nonlinear integration, as predicted by previous studies. These findings highlight a key role of topographic maps in supporting fast, robust, and accurate neural communication over longer distances. Given the prevalence of such structural feature, particularly in the sensory systems, elucidating their functional purpose remains an important challenge toward which this work provides relevant, new insights. At the same time, these results shed new light on important requirements for designing functional hierarchical spiking networks.
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  • Journal Article

    Disruption of Arabidopsis neutral ceramidases 1 and 2 results in specific sphingolipid imbalances triggering different phytohormone‐dependent plant cell death programmes 

    Zienkiewicz, Agnieszka; Gömann, Jasmin; König, Stefanie; Herrfurth, Cornelia; Liu, Yi‐Tse; Meldau, Dorothea; Feussner, Ivo
    New Phytologist p.1-19
    Sphingolipids act as regulators of programmed cell death (PCD) and the plant defence response. The homeostasis between long-chain base (LCB) and ceramide (Cer) seems to play an important role in executions of PCD. Therefore, deciphering the role of neutral ceramidases (NCER) is crucial to identify the sphingolipid compounds that trigger and execute PCD. We performed comprehensive sphingolipid and phytohormone analyses of Arabidopsis ncer mutants, combined with gene expression profiling and microscopic analyses. While ncer1 exhibited early leaf senescence (developmentally controlled PCD - dPCD) and an increase in hydroxyceramides, ncer2 showed spontaneous cell death (pathogen-triggered PCD-like - pPCD) accompanied by an increase in LCB t18:0 at 35 d, respectively. Loss of NCER1 function resulted in accumulation of jasmonoyl-isoleucine (JA-Ile) in the leaves, whereas disruption of NCER2 was accompanied by higher levels of salicylic acid (SA) and increased sensitivity to Fumonisin B1 (FB1 ). All mutants were also found to activate plant defence pathways. These data strongly suggest that NCER1 hydrolyses ceramides whereas NCER2 functions as a ceramide synthase. Our results reveal an important role of NCER in the regulation of both dPCD and pPCD via a tight connection between the phytohormone and sphingolipid levels in these two processes.
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  • Journal Article

    Parasite burden in a short-lived chameleon, Furcifer labordi 

    Eckhardt, Falk; Strube, Christina; Mathes, Karina A.; Mutschmann, Frank; Thiesler, Hauke; Kraus, Cornelia; Kappeler, Peter M.
    International Journal for Parasitology: Parasites and Wildlife 2019; 10 p.231-240
    Life history theory predicts that species with shorter lifespan should show higher investments into growth and reproduction at the expense of immune defenses. Labord's chameleon (Furcifer labordi) is the tetrapod with the shortest known life span. To investigate to which extent immunosenescence influences the die-off of these chameleons when they are only about 6 months old, we examined the gastrointestinal-, blood- and ectoparasite burden in F. labordi in Kirindy Forest (western Madagascar) and compared them with sympatric and longer living F. cf. nicosiai. Moreover, we included data from wild F. labordi that were singly housed under ambient conditions with daily food and water supply. Gastrointestinal parasite prevalence of wild F. labordi increased dramatically during the last 3 months of their lives, which include the reproductive period. Furcifer cf. nicosiai was found to have a belated increase in gastrointestinal parasites compared to F. labordi. In F. cf. nicosiai higher prevalence of blood parasites were found, which probably result from the longer exposure to the arthropod intermediate host. Both species showed infestations with ectoparasites, which peaked in the rainy season but disappeared towards the dry season. Male F. labordi showed a significantly higher prevalence of gastrointestinal - and ectoparasites and higher intensities of coccidians and ectoparasites than females. Males of F. cf. nicosiai exhibited higher prevalence of blood- and ectoparasites, as well as higher intensities in ectoparasites. Caged individuals of both sexes showed delayed senescence, reduced parasite burden and lived longer than their wild conspecifics. Overall, the increase in the prevalence in gastrointestinal - and blood parasites towards the disappearance of the wild population of F. labordi indicates that this species invests comparatively less energy in efficient immune system function, supporting the prediction of life history theory.
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  • Journal Article

    Student Teachers’ Knowledge to Enable Problem-Solving for Sustainable Development 

    Richter-Beuschel, Lisa; Bögeholz, Susanne
    Sustainability 2020; 12(1): Art. 79
    Education is a central strategy in terms of sustainable development (SD) and can contribute to solving global challenges like biodiversity loss and climate change. Content knowledge represents one base for teaching education for sustainable development (ESD). Therefore, identifying teaching and learning prerequisites regarding SD challenges in teacher education is crucial. The focus of the paper was to assess and learn more about student teachers’ procedural knowledge regarding issues of biodiversity and climate change, by using an expert benchmark. The aims of the study are to describe and identify (i) di erences between students’ and experts’ e ectiveness estimations, (ii) di erences in bachelor and master students’ procedural knowledge, and (iii) di erences between procedural knowledge of students studying di erent ESD-relevant subjects. Student teachers at eight German universities (n = 236) evaluated the e ectiveness of solution strategies to SD challenges. The results showed high deviations in the e ectiveness estimations of experts and students and, therefore, di ering procedural knowledge. The lack of student teachers’ interdisciplinary knowledge to reduce biodiversity loss and climate change seemed to be largely independent of their study program and ESD-relevant subject. One reason for this may be the generally low number of ESD-relevant courses they attended. This study suggests further longitudinal research in order to make clear statements about changes in SD-related knowledge during teacher education.
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  • Journal Article

    Coordination Complex Formation and Redox Properties of Kynurenic and Xanthurenic Acid Can Affect Brain Tissue Homeodynamics 

    Kubicova, Lenka; Hadacek, Franz; Bachmann, Gert; Weckwerth, Wolfram; Chobot, Vladimir
    Antioxidants 2019; 8(10): Art. 476
    Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are known for their participation in various physiological and pathological processes in organisms, including ageing or degeneration. Kynurenine pathway metabolites, such as kynurenic (KYNA) or xanthurenic (XA) acid, can affect neurodegenerative diseases due to their ROS scavenging and Fe ion coordination complex formation but insights are still incomplete. Therefore, we investigated the formation and antioxidant capabilities of KYNA- and XA-Fe complexes by nano-electrospray-mass spectrometry, differential pulse voltammetry, deoxyribose degradation and FeII autoxidation assays. XA formed coordination complexes with FeII or FeIII ions and was an effective antioxidant. By contrast, only FeII-KYNA complexes could be detected. Moreover, KYNA showed no antioxidant effects in the FeCl3/ascorbic acid deoxyribose degradation assay variant and only negligible activities in the FeII autoxidation assay. Coordination complexes of Fe ions with KYNA probably stabilize KYNA in its keto tautomer form. Nevertheless, both KYNA and XA exhibited sufficient antioxidant activities in some of the employed assay variants. The results provide evidence that both have the potential to alleviate neurodegenerative diseases by helping to maintain tissue redox homeodynamics.
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  • Journal Article

    Composition, Diversity and Functional Analysis of the Modern Microbiome of the Middle Triassic Cava Superiore Beds (Monte San Giorgio, Switzerland) 

    Arif, Sania; Reitner, Joachim; Hoppert, Michael
    Scientific Reports 2019; 9(1): Art. 20394
    Organic-rich laminated shales and limestones from the Monte San Giorgio (Lugano Prealps, Switzerland) are known as famous fossil lagerstätten for excellently preserved fossils from the Middle Triassic Period. The various bituminous shales from Monte San Giorgio are thermally immature and rich in diverse organic compounds, which provide unique substrates for active soil microbial communities. We selected the Cava superior beds of the Acqua del Ghiffo site for this study. To investigate its microbial structure and diversity, contig assembly, Operational Taxonomic Units (OTUs) clustering, and rarefaction analysis were performed for bacterial 16S rDNA preparations from bituminous and non-bituminous limestone strata with the MetaAmp pipeline. Principal coordinates analysis shows that the microbial communities from the bituminous strata differ significantly from limestone samples (P < 0.05 Unifrac weighted). Moreover, metagenomic tools could also be used effectively to analyze the microbial communities shift during enrichment in specific growth media. In the nutrient-rich media, one or few taxa, mainly Proteobacteria and Firmicutes, were enriched which led to the drastic diversity loss while oligotrophic media could enrich many taxa simultaneously and sustain the richness and diversity of the inoculum. Piphillin, METAGENassist and MicrobiomeAnalyst pipeline also predicted that the Monte San Giorgio bituminous shales and oligotrophic enriched microbiomes degrade complex polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons.
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  • Journal Article

    Desert‐like badlands and surrounding (semi‐)dry grasslands of Central Germany promote small‐scale phenotypic and genetic differentiation in Thymus praecox 

    Karbstein, Kevin; Tomasello, Salvatore; Prinz, Kathleen
    Ecology and Evolution p.1-19
    Environmental heterogeneity among sites can generate phenotypic and genetic variation facilitating differentiation and microevolution of plant populations. Badlands are desert‐like, predominantly vegetation‐poor habitats often embedded in (semi‐)dry grasslands. The desert‐like conditions of badlands demand extreme adaptation of plants, that is, phenotypic modifications in short‐term and/or natural adaptation in long‐term. However, detailed knowledge is missing about both plant phenotypic and genetic differentiation in this unique and widely occurring habitat type. The present study focused on the largest known badlands systems in Central Europe located in the “Drei Gleichen” region, a designated nature conservation area in Central Germany. Locations were suitable for this study in terms of having co‐occurring badlands and (semi‐)dry grassland habitats (sites) occupied by the pioneer plant Thymus praecox. Here, we studied the environmental preferences, morphological and functional trait variation, and genetic variation using microsatellite markers of T. praecox. Results revealed significant, mainly site‐dependent environmental, phenotypic, and genetic differentiation. In general, individuals in badlands are shorter in height and have lower patch sizes (length × width), relative growth rates, and smaller stomata. The PCA additionally unveiled slightly increased leaf robustness, trichome density, decreased stomatal conductance, fewer females, and earlier phenology in badlands. We interpret differentiation patterns as adaptive responses to light, temperature, drought, and nutrient stress conditions supported by reviewed literature. Genetic differentiation was strongest between local badlands and grassland sites, and clearly weaker among locations and between sites (in total) as indicated by GST, AMOVA, PCoA, and population structure. Our study supports the importance of small‐scale microhabitat conditions as a driver of microevolutionary processes, and the population's need for sufficient phenotypic plasticity and genetic resources to deal with environmental changes. We demonstrated that badlands are an appropriate model system for testing plant response to extreme habitats and that more research is needed on these fascinating landscapes.
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  • Journal Article

    A novel role for Ets4 in axis specification and cell migration in the spider Parasteatoda tepidariorum 

    Pechmann, Matthias; Benton, Matthew A; Kenny, Nathan J; Posnien, Nico; Roth, Siegfried
    eLife 2017; 6: Art. e27590
    Organizers play important roles during the embryonic development of many animals. The most famous example is the Spemann organizer that sets up embryonic axes in amphibian embryos. In spiders, a group of BMP secreting mesenchymal cells (the cumulus) functions as an organizer of the dorsoventral axis. Similar to experiments performed with the Spemann organizer, transplantation of the cumulus is able to induce a secondary axis in spiders. Despite the importance of this structure, it is unknown which factors are needed to activate cumulus specific gene expression. To address this question, we performed a transcriptomic analysis of early embryonic development in the spider Parasteatoda tepidariorum. Through this work, we found that the transcription factor Pt-Ets4 is needed for cumulus integrity, dorsoventral patterning and for the activation of Pt-hunchback and Pt-twist expression. Furthermore, ectopic expression of Pt-Ets4 is sufficient to induce cell delamination and migration by inducing a mesoderm-like cell fate.
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  • Journal Article

    Taxon- and Site-Specific Melatonin Catabolism 

    Hardeland, Rüdiger
    Molecules 2017; 22(11): Art. 2015
    Melatonin is catabolized both enzymatically and nonenzymatically. Nonenzymatic processes mediated by free radicals, singlet oxygen, other reactive intermediates such as HOCl and peroxynitrite, or pseudoenzymatic mechanisms are not species- or tissue-specific, but vary considerably in their extent. Higher rates of nonenzymatic melatonin metabolism can be expected upon UV exposure, e.g., in plants and in the human skin. Additionally, melatonin is more strongly nonenzymatically degraded at sites of inflammation. Typical products are several hydroxylated derivatives of melatonin and N1-acetyl-N2-formyl-5-methoxykynuramine (AFMK). Most of these products are also formed by enzymatic catalysis. Considerable taxon- and site-specific differences are observed in the main enzymatic routes of catabolism. Formation of 6-hydroxymelatonin by cytochrome P450 subforms are prevailing in vertebrates, predominantly in the liver, but also in the brain. In pineal gland and non-mammalian retina, deacetylation to 5-methoxytryptamine (5-MT) plays a certain role. This pathway is quantitatively prevalent in dinoflagellates, in which 5-MT induces cyst formation and is further converted to 5-methoxyindole-3-acetic acid, an end product released to the water. In plants, the major route is catalyzed by melatonin 2-hydroxylase, whose product is tautomerized to 3-acetamidoethyl-3-hydroxy-5-methoxyindolin-2-one (AMIO), which exceeds the levels of melatonin. Formation and properties of various secondary products are discussed.
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  • Journal Article

    Toward a monograph of non-marine Ulvophyceae using an integrative approach (Molecular phylogeny and systematics of terrestrial Ulvophyceae II.) 

    DARIENKO, TATYANA; PRÖSCHOLD, THOMAS
    Phytotaxa 2017; 324(1) p.001-041
    Phylogenetic analyses of SSU rDNA sequences have shown that coccoid and filamentous green algae are distributed among all classes of the Chlorophyta. One of these classes, the Ulvophyceae, mostly contains marine seaweeds and microalgae. However, new studies have shown that there are filamentous and sarcinoid freshwater and terrestrial species (including symbionts in lichens) among the Ulvophyceae, but very little is known about these species. Ultrastructural studies of some of them have confirmed that the flagellar apparatus of zoospores (counterclockwise basal body orientation) is typical for the Ulvophyceae. In addition to ultrastructural features, the presence of a “Codiolum”-stage is characteristic of some members of this algal class. We studied more than 50 strains of freshwater and terrestrial ulvophycean microalgae obtained from the different public culture collection and our own isolates using an integrative approach. Three independent lineages of the Ulvophyceae containing terrestrial species were revealed by these methods. Unexpectedly each of these lineages contained several isolates that morphologically developed a high degree of phenotypic plasticity, and included hidden phylogenetic diversity that let us to the description of several new genera and species.
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  • Journal Article

    A key role for foxQ2 in anterior head and central brain patterning in insects 

    Kitzmann, Peter; Weißkopf, Matthias; Schacht, Magdalena Ines; Bucher, Gregor
    Development 2017; 144(16) p.2969-2981
    Anterior patterning of animals is based on a set of highly conserved transcription factors but the interactions within the protostome anterior gene regulatory network (aGRN) remain enigmatic. Here, we identify the red flour beetle Tribolium castaneum ortholog of foxQ2 (Tc-foxQ2) as a novel upstream component of the aGRN. It is required for the development of the labrum and higher order brain structures, namely the central complex and the mushroom bodies. We reveal Tc-foxQ2 interactions by RNAi and heat shock-mediated misexpression. Surprisingly, Tc-foxQ2 and Tc-six3 mutually activate each other, forming a novel regulatory module at the top of the aGRN. Comparisons of our results with those of sea urchins and cnidarians suggest that foxQ2 has acquired more upstream functions in the aGRN during protostome evolution. Our findings expand the knowledge on foxQ2 gene function to include essential roles in epidermal development and central brain patterning.
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  • Journal Article

    Specific expression and function of the Six3 optix in Drosophila serially homologous organs 

    Al Khatib, Amer; Siomava, Natalia; Iannini, Antonella; Posnien, Nico; Casares, Fernando
    Biology Open 2017; 6(8) p.1155-1164
    Organ size and pattern results from the integration of two positional information systems. One global information system, encoded by the Hox genes, links organ type with position along the main body axis. Within specific organs, local information is conveyed by signaling molecules that regulate organ growth and pattern. The mesothoracic (T2) wing and the metathoracic (T3) haltere of Drosophila represent a paradigmatic example of this coordination. The Hox gene Ultrabithorax (Ubx), expressed in the developing T3, selects haltere identity by, among other processes, modulating the production and signaling efficiency of Dpp, a BMP2-like molecule that acts as a major regulator of size and pattern. However, the mechanisms of the Hox-signal integration in this well-studied system are incomplete. Here, we have investigated this issue by studying the expression and function of the Six3 transcription factor optix during Drosophila wing and haltere development. We find that in both organs, Dpp defines the expression domain of optix through repression, and that the specific position of this domain in wing and haltere seems to reflect the differential signaling profile among these organs. We show that optix expression in wing and haltere primordia is conserved beyond Drosophila in other higher diptera. In Drosophila, optix is necessary for the growth of wing and haltere. In the wing, optix is required for the growth of the most anterior/proximal region (the 'marginal cell') and for the correct formation of sensory structures along the proximal anterior wing margin; the halteres of optix mutants are also significantly reduced. In addition, in the haltere, optix is necessary for the suppression of sensory bristles.
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  • Journal Article

    Phylogeny reconstruction based on the length distribution of k-mismatch common substrings 

    Morgenstern, Burkhard; Schöbel, Svenja; Leimeister, Chris-André
    Algorithms for Molecular Biology 2017; 12(1): Art. 27
    Background: Various approaches to alignment-free sequence comparison are based on the length of exact or inexact word matches between pairs of input sequences. Haubold et al. (J Comput Biol 16:1487-1500, 2009) showed how the average number of substitutions per position between two DNA sequences can be estimated based on the average length of exact common substrings. Results: In this paper, we study the length distribution of k-mismatch common substrings between two sequences. We show that the number of substitutions per position can be accurately estimated from the position of a local maximum in the length distribution of their k-mismatch common substrings.
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  • Journal Article

    Changes in Nematode Communities and Functional Diversity With the Conversion of Rainforest Into Rubber and Oil Palm Plantations 

    Krashevska, Valentyna; Kudrin, Alexey A.; Widyastuti, Rahayu; Scheu, Stefan
    Frontiers in Ecology and Evolution 2019; 7: Art. 487
    Focusing on nematodes and their well-developed indices of community, ecosystem structure and function, we investigated the effects of the conversion of rainforest into rubber and oil palm plantations in Sumatra, Indonesia. Land use did not affect the total abundance of litter- and soil-dwelling nematodes, neither in riparian nor in well-drained sites. However, the rainforest nematode community differed from communities in plantations, with differences in litter being more pronounced compared to soil. In litter, fungivores and nematodes with short generation time (c-p2) increased in monoculture plantations, while that of bacterivores, herbivores, and nematodes with longer generation time and higher sensitivity to disturbances (c-p3) decreased. This indicates higher environmental pressure on nematodes in monoculture plantations than in rainforest. In soil of monoculture plantations, bacterivores, and c-p3 nematodes decreased while herbivores increased. This suggests that the damage of plants by nematodes in oil palm plantations exceeds that in rainforest. Overall, nematode functional diversity indices suggest that the stability of the decomposer community is higher in rainforest compared to monoculture plantations. Importantly, functional diversity indices were much more meaningful than nematode abundance. Further, changes with land use manifested more in litter than in soil, reflecting that nematode communities in soil are buffered against changes in land use and associated environmental conditions. Therefore, to fully assess changes in the structure and functioning of decomposer systems with changes in land use, the litter layer, which often receives little attention, requires more careful consideration.
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  • Journal Article

    Editorial: Diversity and Universality in Causal Cognition 

    Beller, Sieghard; Bender, Andrea; Waldmann, Michael R.
    Frontiers in Psychology 2017; 8: Art. 1767
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  • Journal Article

    A Randomized Controlled Trial on Functional Relaxation as an Adjunct to Psychoeducation for Stress 

    Lahmann, Claas; Gebhardt, Maria; Sattel, Heribert; Dinkel, Andreas; Pieh, Christoph; Probst, Thomas
    Frontiers in Psychology 2017; 8: Art. 1553
    This randomized controlled trial investigated whether adding the psychodynamically based body-oriented psychotherapy "Functional Relaxation" (FR) to psychoeducation (PE) is more effective than PE alone to reduce stress and stress-associated complaints. Eighty-one participants with elevated stress-levels, ≥50 points on the global scale of the Perceived Stress Questionnaire (PSQ), received either 10 sessions of manualized FR + PE (n = 42) or two sessions of manualized PE alone (n = 39) in a group setting. Six FR trainers took part in this study. Stress-level (PSQ) was the primary outcome and secondary outcomes were depression (PHQ-9) and somatization (PHQ-15). Multilevel models for discontinuous change revealed that FR + PE was more helpful to reduce stress-levels than PE from pre-treatment to post-treatment (t0 → t1) as well as from pre-treatment to 6-month follow-up (t0 → t2) (both p < 0.05) with effect sizes (d) being medium for PE (dt0 → t1 = 0.57; dt0 → t2 = 0.67) and large for FR + PE (dt0 → t1 = 1.57; dt0 → t2 = 1.39). Moreover, FR + PE affected depression and somatization more positively than did PE from t0 to t1 as well as from t0 to t2 (all p < 0.05). Effect sizes for depression were small to medium for PE (dt0 → t1 = 0.52; dt0 → t2 = 0.37) and large for FR + PE (dt0 → t1 = 1.04; dt0 → t2 = 0.95). Effect sizes for somatization were small for PE (dt0 → t1 = 0.18; dt0 → t2 = 0.19) and medium to large for FR + PE (dt0 → t1 = 0.73; dt0 → t2 = 0.93). In summary, the combination of FR and PE was more effective than PE alone. The results of the present trial provide first evidence of FR as a potent component of stress interventions. Adding FR to such interventions might better help prevent clinically relevant disorders such as depression or somatization.
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  • Journal Article

    Predominant colonization of Malesian mountains by Australian tree lineages 

    Brambach, Fabian; Leuschner, Christoph; Tjoa, Aiyen; Culmsee, Heike
    Journal of Biogeography p.1-16
    Abstract Aim: Massive biota mixing due to plate‐tectonic movement has shaped the biogeography of Malesia and during the colonization process, Asian plant lineages have presumably been more successful than their Australian counterparts. We aim to gain a deeper understanding of this colonization asymmetry and its underlying mechanisms by analysing how species richness and abundance of Asian versus Australian tree lineages in three Malesian subregions change along environmental gradients. We hypothesize that differing environmental histories of Asia and Australia, and their relation to habitats in Malesia, have been important factors driving assembly patterns of the Malesian flora. Location: Malesia, particularly Sundaland, the Philippines and Wallacea. Taxon: Seed plants (trees). Methods: We compiled plot‐level data of environmental variables and tree abundances from three Malesian subregions. For each species, we inferred its geographical ancestry (Asian or Australian) based on published phylogenetic studies and the fossil record. We used proportions of Australian versus Asian species and individuals per plot to test how they are related to environmental parameters and geographical position using logistic regression models. Results: Proportionally more Australian (and fewer Asian) tree species and individuals occurred (a) at higher elevations, (b) on sites over ultramafic parent material and (c) closer to their source region Australia with a significant increase of Australian elements east of Wallace's line. The trend was stronger for individuals than for species. Main conclusions: Long‐term environmental similarities between source and sink habitats have shaped the assembly of the Malesian flora: Tree lineages from tropical Southeast Asia predominantly colonized the Malesian lowlands and rich soils, whereas trees from montane refuges in Australia were more successful in the newly emerging Malesian mountains and on poorer soils. The biogeographical patterns caused by the Malesian Floristic Interchange point to the importance of phylogenetic biome conservatism in biotic interchanges and resemble
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  • Journal Article

    Mapping Cellular Microenvironments: Proximity Labeling and Complexome Profiling (Seventh Symposium of the Göttingen Proteomics Forum) 

    Valerius, Oliver; Asif, Abdul R.; Beißbarth, Tim; Bohrer, Rainer; Dihazi, Hassan; Feussner, Kirstin; Jahn, Olaf; Majcherczyk, Andrzej; Schmidt, Bernhard; Schmitt, Kerstin; et al.
    Urlaub, HenningLenz, Christof
    Cells 2019; 8(10): Art. 1192
    Mass spectrometry-based proteomics methods are finding increasing use in structural biology research. Beyond simple interaction networks, information about stable protein-protein complexes or spatially proximal proteins helps to elucidate the biological functions of proteins in a wider cellular context. To shed light on new developments in this field, the Göttingen Proteomics Forum organized a one-day symposium focused on complexome profiling and proximity labeling, two emerging technologies that are gaining significant attention in biomolecular research. The symposium was held in Göttingen, Germany on 23 May, 2019, as part of a series of regular symposia organized by the Göttingen Proteomics Forum.
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