Items 1-20 of 162

    • Journal Article

      An Unrecorded Tradition of St. Michael in Old English Texts—Now Recorded 

      Hall, Thomas N.
      Notes and Queries 2019; 66(4) p.492-498
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    • Journal Article

      Andreas’s Blooming Blood 

      Hall, Thomas N.
      Medieval Institute Publications
      De Gruyter, 2020
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    • Journal Article

      Wulfstan at Work 

      Rudolf, Winfried
      De Gruyter, 2019
      This article retrieves the hitherto mostly illegible drafts of four short texts by Wulfstan, archbishop of York (d. 1023), in London, British Library, Additional 38651, fols. 57r–58v. The autograph manuscript, which can be dated to the first years of the second millennium, provides not only an authentic basis for the description of Wulfstan’s distinctive style, it also offers unique insights into his compositional method as homilist, his relation to Ælfric of Eynsham at the beginning of his career as archiepiscopal legislator, and the nature of the manuscripts from which a mobile prelate of his day was preaching. The short texts, described, edited, and translated here for the first time, witness Wulfstan’s efforts of reconciling the moral and theological idealism of Ælfric with the realpolitik of his own day.
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    • Journal Article

      The Anonymous Old English Homily 

      Rudolf, Winfried; Irvine, Susan
      Medieval and Renaissance Authors and Texts; 25
      Brill, 2020
      The Anonymous Old English Homily: Sources, Composition, and Variation offers important essays on the origins, textual transmission, and (re)use of early English preaching texts between the ninth and the late twelfth centuries. Associated with the Electronic Corpus of Anonymous Homilies in Old English project, these studies provide fresh insights into one of the most complex textual genres of early medieval literature. Contributions deal with the definition of the anonymous homiletic corpus in Old English, the history of scholarship on its Latin sources, and the important unedited Pembroke and Angers Latin homiliaries. They also include new source and manuscript identifications, and in-depth studies of a number of popular Old English homilies, their themes, revisions, and textual relations.
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    • Journal Article

      The Earliest Surviving Homily in English 

      Rudolf, Winfried
      Notes and Queries 2019; 66(1) p.24-26
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    • Journal Article

      Digitizing the Old English Anonymous and Wulfstanian Homilies through the Electronic Corpus of Anonymous Homilies in Old English ( ECHOE ) Project 

      Rudolf, Winfried
      Anglia 2021; 139(1) p.128-153
      This article first outlines the challenges involved in the editing of Old English anonymous and Wulfstanian homilies before introducing the Electronic Corpus of Anonymous Homilies in Old English (ECHOE) project. This new initiative at the University of Göttingen reverses the traditional collation of texts and instead celebrates the book-historical significance of every individual manuscript version, its textual and palaeographical idiosyncrasies, and its revisional layers up through c. 1200 AD. The project provides new forms of display to expose the complex interversional network of textual representations, and develops a range of digital tools to facilitate the identification and swift comparison of related passages. It includes digital facsimiles, palaeographical and rhetorical version profiles, and the Latin sources for each homily, creating opportunities for unprecedented research on the transmission, composition, variation, and performance of the fluid preaching text. Key terms: Old English prose; homilies; sermons; palaeography; digital editing; variance; text encoding; ECHOE
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    • Journal Article

      Breaking News! Making and testing Bronze Age balance scales 

      Hermann, Raphael; Steinhoff, Judith; Schlotzhauer, Philipp; Vana, Philipp
      Journal of Archaeological Science: Reports 2020; 32: Art. 102444
      This interdisciplinary paper (archaeology, macromolecular chemistry and material science) investigates theproduction and load-bearing capacities of Bronze Age balance scales.The existence of weighing equipment and practices in Late Bronze Age Europe has been proven beyond doubt.Although hundreds of balance weights from Central and Western Europe have recently been identified in thearchaeological record, balance scales are still extremely rare. Consisting of balance beams, suspension cords,scale pans and sometimes metal suspension loops, the only evidence found to date are 18 complete and frag-mented balance beams. Made of bone or antler, these balance beams are often perceived as extremely fragile andonly able to weigh-out minute loads. This, however, had never been tested. In order to understand exactly howBronze Age balances were made, of what materials and how much load they could bear, a number of replicabalance beams, suspension cords and metal loops were created. The load-bearing capacity was then tested withtwo standard material sciences testing methods: three-point bending tests and uniaxial tensile testing.
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    • Journal Article

      Lost in combat? A scrap metal find from the Bronze Age battlefield site at Tollense 

      Uhlig, Tobias; Krüger, Joachim; Lidke, Gundula; Jantzen, Detlef; Lorenz, Sebastian; Ialongo, Nicola; Terberger, Thomas
      Antiquity 2019; 93(371) p.1211-1230
      A decade ago, archaeologists discovered the site of a Bronze Age battlefield in the Tollense Valley in north-eastern Germany. Dated to the early thirteenth century BC, the remains of over 140 individuals have been documented, along with many associated bronze objects. Here, the authors present a new assemblage of 31 objects from the site, including three bronze cylinders that may be the fastenings of an organic container. The objects are similar to those found in Bronze Age burials of southern Central Europe, and may represent the personal equipment of a warrior from that region who died on the battlefield in Northern Europe.
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    • Journal Article

      The third person gap in adnominal pronoun constructions 

      Höhn, Georg F. K.
      Glossa: a journal of general linguistics 2020; 5(1) p.1-43: Art. 69
      The lack of third person adnominal pronouns in English-type languages (*they linguists) is argued to be an effect of contextually conditioned allomorphy between the exponents of the definite article and third person pronouns within a pronominal determiner structure. A crosslinguistic survey of 82 languages finds that the third person gap is crosslinguistically relatively rare and may be restricted to Europe and surrounding areas. The survey also suggests a potential interaction between the third person gap and the availability of distinct articles, as expected on the proposed analysis. The paper also discusses issues raised by the third person gap for alternative analyses, including those advocating an NP-analysis.
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    • Journal Article

      Scales, weights and weight-regulated artefacts in Middle and Late Bronze Age Britain 

      Rahmstorf, Lorenz
      Antiquity 2019; 93(371) p.1197-1210
      The identification of weights and weight-regulated artefacts is of primary importance for confirming the existence of European Bronze Age value ratios and exchange systems. Until recently, however, no such Bronze Age artefacts had been identified in Britain. Here, statistical analysis identifies—for the first time—Middle and Late Bronze Age balance weights and weight-regulated gold objects from Britain, Ireland and Atlantic France. These finds allow for new interpretations concerning modes of exchange and their significance in Atlantic Europe, further underlining a Continental—and possibly Mediterranean—influence on Britain during the late second and early first millennia BC.
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    • Journal Article

      Pro Rent-Gap-Theorie, contra habitualisierten Antikulturalismus 

      Ege, Moritz
      sub\urban. zeitschrift für kritische stadtforschung 2019; 7(3) p.87-94
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    • Monograph

      Tractatus mythologicus 

      Zgoll, Christian
      Mythological Studies; 1
      De Gruyter: Berlin, Boston, 2019
      Programmatischer Auftakt der Reihe MythoS: Die vom Autor entwickelten Methoden der Hylemanalyse und der Stratifikationsanalyse stecken den Rahmen einer neuen Mythosforschung ab. Auf der Grundlage eines präzisierten Stoffbegriffs, der Stoffe als Sequenzen kleinster Stoffbausteine (Hyleme) begreift, die nicht auf bestimmte mediale Konkretionen festgelegt sind, werden Mythen durch Hylemanalysen nicht als Texte oder Bilder, sondern als Stoffe erforschbar. Mythen, so zeigt der theoretische Zugriff, sind durch vielfältige Einflüsse und Überarbeitungen umkämpfte und daher komplex geschichtete Stoffe. Stratifikationsanalysen eröffnen die Möglichkeit, dieser Vielschichtigkeit durch einen entsprechend differenzierten Interpretationsansatz gerecht zu werden. Darüber hinaus werden quantitativ und qualitativ objektivierbare Kriterien für Mythenvergleiche erarbeitet. Theorie und Methodik werden durch exemplarische Untersuchungen v. a. anhand griechisch-römischer und altorientalischer Mythen veranschaulicht. Mit einer wegweisenden Arbeit wird hier das Fundament gelegt für die Ausarbeitung einer Mythostheorie auf der Basis einer neu aufgestellten allgemeinen, transmedialen und komparatistischen Stoffwissenschaft (Hylistik).
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    • Journal Article

      Adverbial clauses: Internally rich, externally null 

      Blümel, Andreas; Pitsch, Hagen
      Glossa: a journal of general linguistics 2019; 4(1)
      This paper suggests a novel syntactic treatment of adverbial clauses. The point of departure is the observation – in German and Slavic languages – that there exists an asymmetry in the complexity of subordinating elements in complement and adverbial clauses: While the former feature simplex complementizers, i.e. heads, the latter to a large extent feature complex prepositional phrases in addition to the adverbial CP. Sense can be made of this observation if adverbial clauses exhibit a structure {PP, CP} in the specifier-less framework of Chomsky (2013). The labeling algorithm suggested in that work delivers no result, i.e. structure remains exocentric in line with the spirit of suggestions regarding adjuncts more generally (Hornstein & Nunes 2008). The underlying reason for the asymmetry is thus that C-elements must be simplex to ensure that the selected complement clause is properly endowed with a syntactic category. There is no corresponding need for this in (unselected) adverbial clauses, and hence no derivational problem for Merging PP with CP which suppresses the application of the labeling algorithm.
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    • Journal Article

      Handling Sign Language Data: The Impact of Modality 

      Quer, Josep; Steinbach, Markus
      Frontiers in Psychology 2019; 10 p.483-483
      Natural languages come in two different modalities. The impact of modality on the grammatical structure and linguistic theory has been discussed at great length in the last 20 years. By contrast, the impact of modality on linguistic data elicitation and collection, corpus studies, and experimental (psycholinguistic) studies is still underinvestigated. In this article, we address specific challenges that arise in judgment data elicitation and experimental studies of sign languages. These challenges are related to the socio-linguistic status of the Deaf community and the larger variability across signers within the same community, to the social status of sign languages, to properties of the visual-gestural modality and its interface with gesture, to methodological aspects of handling sign language data, and to specific linguistic features of sign languages. While some of these challenges also pertain to (some varieties of) spoken languages, other challenges are more modality-specific. The special combination of the challenges discussed in this article seems to be a specific facet empirical research on sign languages is faced with. In addition, we discuss the complementarity of theoretical approaches and experimental studies and show how the interaction of both approaches contributes to a better understanding of sign languages in particular and linguistic structures in general.
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    • Journal Article

      Detecting clauses and their dependencies in signed utterances: A syntactico-semantic approach 

      Loos, Cornelia
      Glossa: a journal of general linguistics 2018; 3(1): Art. 123
      Investigating the syntactic structure of utterances with multiple predicates in sign languages requires a clear understanding of how many finite and infinitival clauses they contain and which syntactic dependencies exist between them. Since the sign language literature currently lacks a standardized methodology for identifying clause boundaries, this paper discusses syntactico-semantic diagnostics of clausehood and clause size and analyzes their applicability to American Sign Language (ASL) and German Sign Language (DGS). First, I discuss tests that distinguish coordinated clauses from dependent clause structures; specifically negation, A’-movement, and subject pronoun copy. Limitations of wh- and topic fronting as clausehood diagnostics are identified and a modified subject pronoun copy test is proposed. Determining whether a given utterance contains coordinated or dependent clauses is only half the battle, however; we also want to know the approximate “size” of the constituent an embedded predicate projects. The present study takes a first pass at filling this gap by introducing rightward wh-movement and confirming center-embedding as diagnostics that can discriminate between finite and infinitival clauses in signed languages. Based on acceptability judgments from 13 native signers of DGS and ASL, I show that wh-subjects can move across infinitival control complements and the secondary predicates of resultative constructions, but they cannot cross a finite complement clause. The diagnostic thus provides empirical evidence for the existence of various types of embedded clauses in signed languages that differ in their functional structure.
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    • Journal Article

      Cuneiform Culture and Science, Calendars, and Metrology in Elam 

      Basello, G. P.; Ascalone, E.
      Routledge, 2018
      The word “culture” is commonly used as either a synonym for “civilization” or in reference to the “shared education” of a specific segment of society, the literate people. In an inspiring book like The Oxford Handbook of Cuneiform Culture (Radner and Robson 2011), it is used in both senses, while the syntagm “cuneiform culture” represents an umbrella term for Sumerian, Assyrian, Babylonian, and so on textual communities (Radner and Robson 2011: xxvii, following Stock 1990: 23 in defining textual communities as “microsocieties organized around the common understanding of a script”). While it would be interesting to discuss the extent to which individuals from different social classes and time periods would have identified and labeled themselves as “Elamite” in Susa and other Elamite areas, in what follows we will be concerned with the second meaning, that is, the one pointing to cuneiform literacy in Elam and especially to literacy in the Elamite language.
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    • Journal Article

      Ökonomische Integration durch Gewichtsnutzung im bronze - zeitlichen Anatolien 

      Rahmstorf, Lorenz
      Anatolian Metal; VIII
      Marie Leidorf GmbH, Rahden/Westf., 2018
      Im Folgenden werde ich versuchen einen kurzen Abriss der Nutzungsgeschichte von Waagen und Gewichten in bronzezeitlichen Anatolien zu bieten. Hierbei handelt es sich um eine Momentaufnahme, die vor allem neue Erkenntnisse der letzten Jahre referiert. Die rasante Veränderung des Forschungsstandes zeigt sich dadurch, dass neue Ergebnisse zur Gewichtsnutzung in den einzelnen Epochen der anatolischen Bronzezeit erst in den letzten Jahren erschienen sind: zur Frühbronzezeit (Horejs 2016), zur Mittelbronzezeit (Dercksen 2016) und zur Spätbronzezeit (Müller-Karpe 2015).
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    • Journal Article

      Of middens and markets: the phenomenology of the market place in the Bronze Age and beyond 

      Rahmstorf, Lorenz
      Oxbow Books, 2018
      It is not known when humans started using markets to exchange goods. However, we have concrete evidence of their doing so from at least the Bronze Age. While the existence of market places is often not taken into consideration by researchers due to preconceived conceptions about exchange during the Bronze Age, textual evidence from the Near East and tomb reliefs from Pharaonic Egypt demonstrate their existence during this period. Nevertheless, it is difficult to identify actual market places by archaeological means in these regions. This applies even more to Bronze Age Europe, where researchers have argued that it may be not appropriate to speak of trade, as this implies an economic system in which markets were in use. In this article I would like to discuss the phenomenon of market places by investigating the archaeological remains of potential exchange sites from the Neolithic and Bronze Age and comparing them with later evidence from the Mediterranean, central Europe and Mesoamerica. It will be argued that specific sites (‘middens’) from Late Bronze Age Britain and the Early Iron Age transition in the earlier first millennium BC in southern Britain can be considered to be market places. Certain archaeological features and objects may indicate the existence of market places from a cross-cultural and diachronic perspective and thus provide us with a range of distinct criteria for detecting their physical remains.
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    • Journal Article

      Market as place & space of economic exchange. Perspectives from archaeology & anthropology 

      Rahmstorf, Lorenz
      Oxbow Books, 2018
      It is not known when humans started using markets to exchange goods. However, we have concrete evidence of their doing so from at least the Bronze Age. While the existence of market places is often not taken into consideration by researchers due to preconceived conceptions about exchange during the Bronze Age, textual evidence from the Near East and tomb reliefs from Pharaonic Egypt demonstrate their existence during this period. Nevertheless, it is difficult to identify actual market places by archaeological means in these regions. This applies even more to Bronze Age Europe, where researchers have argued that it may be not appropriate to speak of trade, as this implies an economic system in which markets were in use. In this article I would like to discuss the phenomenon of market places by investigating the archaeological remains of potential exchange sites from the Neolithic and Bronze Age and comparing them with later evidence from the Mediterranean, central Europe and Mesoamerica. It will be argued that specific sites (‘middens’) from Late Bronze Age Britain and the Early Iron Age transition in the earlier first millennium BC in southern Britain can be considered to be market places. Certain archaeological features and objects may indicate the existence of market places from a cross-cultural and diachronic perspective and thus provide us with a range of distinct criteria for detecting their physical remains.
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    • Journal Article

      Indeterminacy and approximation in Mediterranean weight systems, in the third and second millennia BC 

      Ialongo, N.; Vacca, A.; Vanzetti, A.
      Archaeopress Publishing Ltd, 2018
      Research on weight systems used during the Bronze Age, prior to the introduction of writing, generally assumes that the widespread use of metal as ‘commodity currency’ eventually resulted in the adoption of widely shared systems of measurement. Many studies aimed at the identification of recurrent weight values as multiples and/or submultiples of theoretical standard units. This approach faces two limitations: 1) the absence of written sources, or at least statistically sound samples, makes it difficult to either validate or reject any reconstruction of prehistoric systems; 2) in the literate Ancient World, different polities usually retained distinct systems. Here an alternative analytical framework is outlined, making use of elementary statistics and cross-historical comparisons, and relying positively on ‘indeterminacy’ and ‘approximation’ rather than on ‘exactness’. Recurrent weight measures can correspond to ‘Standard Average Quantities’, rather than representing arrays of exact multiples/submultiples of given units. By departing from a ‘fractional’ theoretical logic, one can observe that constant exchange practice may have produced the normalisation of ‘tradable quantities’ and that this can happen without necessarily implying the unification of local systems.
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