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    Changes of Microrna Levels in Plasma of Patients with Rectal Cancer during Chemoradiotherapy 

    Jo, Peter; Azizian, Azadeh; Salendo, Junius; Kramer, Frank; Bernhardt, Markus; Wolff, Hendrik; Gruber, Jens; Grade, Marian; Beißbarth, Tim; Ghadimi, B.; et al.
    Gaedcke, Jochen
    International Journal of Molecular Sciences 2017; 18(6): Art. 1140
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    EV-3, an endogenous human erythropoietin isoform with distinct functional relevance 

    Bonnas, Christel; Wüstefeld, Liane; Winkler, Daniela; Kronstein-Wiedemann, Romy; Dere, Ekrem; Specht, Katja; Boxberg, Melanie; Tonn, Torsten; Ehrenreich, Hannelore; Stadler, Herbert; et al.
    Sillaber, Inge
    Scientific Reports 2017; 7(1): Art. 3684
    Generation of multiple mRNAs by alternative splicing is well known in the group of cytokines and has recently been reported for the human erythropoietin (EPO) gene. Here, we focus on the alternatively spliced EPO transcript characterized by deletion of exon 3 (hEPOΔ3). We show co-regulation of EPO and hEPOΔ3 in human diseased tissue. The expression of hEPOΔ3 in various human samples was low under normal conditions, and distinctly increased in pathological states. Concomitant up-regulation of hEPOΔ3 and EPO in response to hypoxic conditions was also observed in HepG2 cell cultures. Using LC-ESI-MS/MS, we provide first evidence for the existence of hEPOΔ3 derived protein EV-3 in human serum from healthy donors. Contrary to EPO, recombinant EV-3 did not promote early erythroid progenitors in cultures of human CD34+ haematopoietic stem cells. Repeated intraperitoneal administration of EV-3 in mice did not affect the haematocrit. Similar to EPO, EV-3 acted anti-apoptotic in rat hippocampal neurons exposed to oxygen-glucose deprivation. Employing the touch-screen paradigm of long-term visual discrimination learning, we obtained first in vivo evidence of beneficial effects of EV-3 on cognition. This is the first report on the presence of a naturally occurring EPO protein isoform in human serum sharing non-erythropoietic functions with EPO.
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    SUMO conjugation to spliceosomal proteins is required for efficient pre-mRNA splicing 

    Pozzi, Berta; Bragado, Laureano; Will, Cindy L.; Mammi, Pablo; Risso, Guillermo; Urlaub, Henning; Lührmann, Reinhard; Srebrow, Anabella
    Nucleic Acids Research 2017; 45(11) p.6729-6745
    Pre-mRNA splicing is catalyzed by the spliceosome, a multi-megadalton ribonucleoprotein machine. Previous work from our laboratory revealed the splicing factor SRSF1 as a regulator of the SUMO pathway, leading us to explore a connection between this pathway and the splicing machinery. We show here that addition of a recombinant SUMO-protease decreases the efficiency of pre-mRNA splicing in vitro. By mass spectrometry analysis of anti-SUMO immunoprecipitated proteins obtained from purified splicing complexes formed along the splicing reaction, we identified spliceosome-associated SUMO substrates. After corroborating SUMOylation of Prp3 in cultured cells, we defined Lys 289 and Lys 559 as bona fide SUMO attachment sites within this spliceosomal protein. We further demonstrated that a Prp3 SUMOylation-deficient mutant while still capable of interacting with U4/U6 snRNP components, is unable to co-precipitate U2 and U5 snRNA and the spliceosomal proteins U2-SF3a120 and U5-Snu114. This SUMOylation-deficient mutant fails to restore the splicing of different pre-mRNAs to the levels achieved by the wild type protein, when transfected into Prp3-depleted cultured cells. This mutant also shows a diminished recruitment to active spliceosomes, compared to the wild type protein. These findings indicate that SUMO conjugation plays a role during the splicing process and suggest the involvement of Prp3 SUMOylation in U4/U6•U5 tri-snRNP formation and/or recruitment.
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    Protective and Predisposing Morphological Factors in Suprascapular Nerve Entrapment Syndrome: A Fundamental Review Based on Recent Observations 

    Łabętowicz, Piotr; Synder, Marek; Wojciechowski, Mariusz; Orczyk, Krzysztof; Jezierski, Hubert; Topol, Mirosław; Polguj, Michał
    BioMed Research International 2017; 2017 p.1-9: Art. 4659761
    Suprascapular nerve entrapment syndrome (SNES) is a neuropathy caused by compression of the nerve along its course. The most common compression sites include the suprascapular notch and the spinoglenoid notch. The aim of this article was to review the anatomical factors influencing the occurrence of SNES in the light of the newest reports. Potential predisposing morphological factors include a V-shaped, narrow, or “deep” suprascapular notch; a band-shaped, bifurcated, or completely ossified superior transverse scapular ligament (STSL); particular arrangements of the suprascapular nerve and vessels at the suprascapular notch. A very recent report indicates structures at the suprascapular notch region that may protect from SNES, such as the suprascapular notch veins (SNV). The role of the anterior coracoscapular ligament (ACSL) is still not clear. While some studies indicate that it may predispose for SNES, the newest study proposes a protective function. Knowledge of these variations is essential for arthroscopic and other surgical procedures of this area in order to avoid iatrogenic injury of the suprascapular nerve or unexpected bleeding from the suprascapular vessels running alongside the STSL.
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    Expression of the Antioxidative Enzyme Peroxiredoxin 2 in Multiple Sclerosis Lesions in Relation to Inflammation 

    Voigt, David; Scheidt, Uta; Derfuss, Tobias; Brück, Wolfgang; Junker, Andreas
    International Journal of Molecular Sciences 2017; 18(4) p.1-10: Art. 760
    Multiple sclerosis is a chronic inflammatory disease of the central nervous system, characterized by demyelination and axonal damage as well as neuronal degeneration. Since oxygen-derived free radicals are an important factor leading to tissue damage in inflammatory multiple sclerosis (MS) lesions, research on antioxidative systems is essential to identify endogenous factors which can possibly counteract oxidative damage. As an important scavenging enzyme family, peroxiredoxins (PRDXs) play a crucial role in preventing oxidative damage; however little is known about their expression and function in MS lesions. In the present study we examined the expression of PRDX2 in white matter lesions of MS patients with long-standing, chronic disease. PRDX2 expression was investigated by immunohistochemistry in the context of oxidative stress and inflammation (determined by microglia/macrophage and T cell infiltration) in ten MS autopsy cases as well as seven control autopsy cases. PRDX2 was found to be upregulated in white matter MS lesions mainly in astrocytes, and its expression level was positively correlated with the degree of inflammation and oxidative stress. Our data suggest that PRDX2 expression contributes to the resistance of astrocytes against oxidative damage
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    The patient above all else: Introducing JCSM Clinical Reports A legitimate crown princess, daughter of the Journal of Cachexia, Sarcopenia and Muscle 

    Trippel, Tobias Daniel; Ebner, Nicole; Haehling, Stephan von
    Journal of Cachexia, Sarcopenia and Muscle ‐ Clinical Reports 207; 1(1): Art. e00015
    not available
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    Immunological Properties of Murine Parthenogenetic Stem Cell-Derived Cardiomyocytes and Engineered Heart Muscle. 

    Didié, Michael; Galla, Satish; Muppala, Vijayakumar; Dressel, Ralf; Zimmermann, Wolfram-Hubertus
    Frontiers in immunology 2017; 8
    Pluripotent parthenogenetic stem cells (pSCs) can be derived by pharmacological activation of unfertilized oocytes. Homozygosity of the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) in pSCs makes them an attractive cell source for applications in allogeneic tissue repair. This was recently demonstrated for pSC-based tissue-engineered heart repair. A detailed analysis of immunological properties of pSC-derived cardiomyocytes and engineered heart muscle (EHM) thereof is, however, lacking. The aim of this study was to determine baseline and cytokine-inducible MHC class I and MHC class II as well as programmed death ligand-1 (PDL-1) and co-stimulatory protein (CD40, CD80, CD86) expression in pSC-derived cardiomyocytes and pSC-EHM in vitro and in vivo. Cardiomyocytes from an MHC-homologous (H2(d/d)) pSC-line were enriched to ~90% by making use of a recently developed cardiomyocyte-specific genetic selection protocol. MHC class I and MHC class II expression in cardiomyocytes could only be observed after stimulation with interferon gamma (IFN-γ). PDL-1 was markedly upregulated under IFN-γ. CD40, CD80, and CD86 were expressed at low levels and not upregulated by IFN-γ. EHM constructed from H2(d/d) cardiomyocytes expressed similarly low levels of MHC class I, MHC class II, and costimulatory molecules under basal conditions. However, in EHM only MHC class I, but not MHC class II, molecules were upregulated after IFN-γ-stimulation. We next employed a cocultivation system with MHC-matched and MHC-mismatched splenocytes and T-cells to analyze the immune stimulatory properties of EHMs. Despite MHC-mismatched conditions, EHM did not induce splenocyte or T-cell proliferation in vitro. To evaluate the immunogenicity of pSC-derived cardiomyocytes in vivo, we implanted pSC-derived embryoid bodies after elimination of non-cardiomyocytes (cardiac bodies) under the kidney capsules of MHC-matched and -mismatched mice. Spontaneous beating of cardiac bodies could be observed for 28 days in the matched and for 7 days in the mismatched conditions. Teratomas formed after 28 days only in the MHC-matched conditions. Immunohistochemistry revealed single clusters of CD3-positive cells in the border zone of the implant in the mismatched conditions with few CD3-positive cells infiltrating the implant. Taken together, MHC-matched pSC-cardiomyocyte allografts show little immune cell activation, offering an explanation for the observed long-term retention of pSC-EHM allografts in the absence of immunosuppression.
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    Cerebrospinal Fluid Biomarkers of Alzheimer's Disease Show Different but Partially Overlapping Profile Compared to Vascular Dementia 

    Llorens, Franc; Schmitz, Matthias; Knipper, Tobias; Schmidt, Christian; Lange, Peter; Fischer, Andre; Hermann, Peter; Zerr, Inga
    Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience 2017; 9: Art. 289
    Vascular factors increase the risks of developing Alzheimer’s disease (AD) and they contribute to AD pathology. Since amyloid beta (Ab) deposits can be observed in both diseases, there is an overlap which impedes a clear discrimination and difficult clinical diagnosis. In the present study, we compared cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) profiles of neurodegenerative and inflammatory biomarkers in a patient cohort of controls (n = 50), AD (n = 65) and vascular dementia (VaD) (n = 31) cases. Main results were validated in a second cohort composed of AD (n = 26), rapidly progressive AD (rpAD) (n = 15), VaD (n = 21), and cognitively unimpaired patients with vascular encephalopathy (VE) (n = 25) cases. In the study, cohort significant differences were detected in tau, p-tau, and Ab1-42 (Ab42) levels between AD and VaD patients, but not for the neuron-specific enolase (NSE), S100B protein, 14-3-3 and YKL-40. Differential tau, p-tau, and Ab42 levels between AD and VaD were confirmed in the validation cohort, which additionally showed no differences between AD and rpAD, nor between VaD and VE. The evaluation of the biomarker performance in discrimination between AD and VaD patients revealed that the best diagnostic accuracy could be obtained when tau, p-tau, and Ab42 were combined in form of Ab42/p-tau (AUC 0.84–0.90, sensitivity 77–81%, specificity 80–93%) and (tau × p-tau)/Ab42 ratio (AUC 0.83–0.87, sensitivity 73–81%, specificity 78–87%). Altogether, our studies provided neurodegenerative biomarker profiles in two cohorts of AD and VaD patients favoring the combination of CSF biomarker to differentiate between diseases.
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    Lymphadenopathy in Autoimmune Thyroiditis: Paratracheal Lymph Nodes are Indeed Crucial 

    Brosche, S.; Sahlmann, C. O.; Meller, J.; Bouter, C.
    Open Access Journal of Endocrinology 2017; 1(2)
    Cervical lymphadenopathy is common in patients with autoimmune thyroiditis and supposed to be pathognomic for the disease if found in the paratracheal compartment (Robbins level VI). The aim of this prospective study is the extensive characterization of all cervical lymph node compartments in order to determine the significance of sonographic visible cervical lymphnodes in autoimmune thyroiditis. The study comprises 32 consecutive autoimmune thyroiditis patients and 32 controls without any thyroid pathologies. All patients underwent high resolution ultrasound and all visible lymph nodes were evaluated in all cervical levels by size, volume, S/L-ratio, appearance, vascularity and structural changes. In total, 84 lymph nodes in Robbins level VI were detected in the group of patients with autoimmune thyroiditis whereas the control group showed 2 positive lymph nodes. Lymph nodes in Robbins level VI were significantly smaller compared to lymph nodes in other cervical compartments with 54% of lymph nodes <5mm. Robbins level I-IV did not show any significant differences in the number of enlarged lymph nodes. S/L-ratio, vascularity and appearance was comparable in both groups in all cervical levels. In this prospective setting Robbins level VI could be identified as crucial lymph node level specific for autoimmune thyroiditis being pathognomic for the disease.
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    Increased Mitochondrial Mass and Cytosolic Redox Imbalance in Hippocampal Astrocytes of a Mouse Model of Rett Syndrome: Subcellular Changes Revealed by Ratiometric Imaging of JC-1 and roGFP1 Fluorescence 

    Bebensee, Dörthe F.; Can, Karolina; Müller, Michael
    Oxidative Medicine and Cellular Longevity 2017; 2017 p.1-15
    Rett syndrome (RTT) is a neurodevelopmental disorder with mutations in the MECP2 gene. Mostly girls are affected, and an apparently normal development is followed by cognitive impairment, motor dysfunction, epilepsy, and irregular breathing. Various indications suggest mitochondrial dysfunction. In Rett mice, brain ATP levels are reduced, mitochondria are leaking protons, and respiratory complexes are dysregulated. Furthermore, we found in MeCP2-deficient mouse (Mecp2−/y) hippocampus an intensified mitochondrial metabolism and ROS generation. We now used emission ratiometric 2-photon imaging to assess mitochondrial morphology, mass, and membrane potential (ΔΨm) in Mecp2−/y hippocampal astrocytes. Cultured astrocytes were labeled with the ΔΨm marker JC-1, and semiautomated analyses yielded the number of mitochondria per cell, their morphology, and ΔΨm. Mecp2−/y astrocytes contained more mitochondria than wild-type (WT) cells and were more oxidized. Mitochondrial size, ΔΨm, and vulnerability to pharmacological challenge did not differ. The antioxidant Trolox opposed the oxidative burden and decreased the mitochondrial mass, thereby dampening the differences among WT and Mecp2−/y astrocytes; mitochondrial size and ΔΨm were not markedly affected. In conclusion, mitochondrial alterations and redox imbalance in RTT also involve astrocytes. Mitochondria are more numerous in Mecp2−/y than in WT astrocytes. As this genotypic difference is abolished by Trolox, it seems linked to the oxidative stress in RTT.
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    Generation of a KLF15 homozygous knockout human embryonic stem cell line using paired CRISPR/Cas9n, and human cardiomyocytes derivation 

    Noack, Claudia; Haupt, Luis Peter; Zimmermann, Wolfram-Hubertus; Streckfuss-Bömeke, Katrin; Zelarayán, Laura Cecilia
    Stem Cell Research 2017; 23 p.127-131
    Krueppel-like factor 15 (KLF15) is abundantly expressed in liver, kidney, and muscle, including myocardium. In the adult heart KLF15 is important to maintain homeostasis and to repress hypertrophic remodeling. We generated a homozygous hESC KLF15 knockout (KO) line using paired CRISPR/Cas9n. KLF15-KO cells maintained full pluripotency and differentiation potential as well as genomic integrity. We demonstrated that KLF15-KO cells can be differentiated into morphologically normal cardiomyocytes turning them into a valuable tool for studying human KLF15-mediated mechanisms resulting in human cardiac dysfunction.
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    Radiological imaging characteristics of intramammary hematological malignancies: results from a german multicenter study. 

    Wienbeck, Susanne; Meyer, Hans Jonas; Uhlig, Johannes; Herzog, Aimee; Nemat, Sogand; Teifke, Andrea; Heindel, Walter; Schäfer, Fritz; Kinner, Sonja; Surov, Alexey
    Scientific reports 2017-08-07; 7(1): Art. 7435
    To assess radiological procedures and imaging characteristics in patients with intramammary hematological malignancies (IHM). Radiological imaging studies of histopathological proven IHM cases from ten German University affiliated breast imaging centers from 1997-2012 were retrospectively evaluated. Imaging modalities included ultrasound (US), mammography and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Two radiologists blinded to the histopathological diagnoses independently assessed all imaging studies. Imaging studies of 101 patients with 204 intramammary lesions were included. Most patients were women (95%) with a median age of 64 years. IHM were classified as Non Hodgkin lymphoma (77.2%), plasmacytoma (11.9%), leukemia (9.9%), and Hodgkin lymphoma (1%). The mean lesion size was 15.8 ± 10.1 mm. Most IHM presented in mammography as lesions with comparable density to the surrounding tissue, and a round or irregular shape with indistinct margins. On US, most lesions were of irregular shape with complex echo pattern and indistinct margins. MRI shows lesions with irregular or spiculated margins and miscellaneous enhancement patterns. Using US or MRI, IHM were more frequently classified as BI-RADS 4 or 5 than using mammography (96.2% and 89.3% versus 75.3%). IHM can present with miscellaneous radiological patterns. Sensitivity for detection of IHM lesions was higher in US and MRI than in mammography.
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    Novel Drug Delivery Systems Tailored for Improved Administration of Glucocorticoids. 

    Lühder, Fred; Reichardt, Holger M.
    International journal of molecular sciences 2017-08-24; 18(9)
    Glucocorticoids (GC) are one of the most popular and versatile classes of drugs available to treat chronic inflammation and cancer, but side effects and resistance constrain their use. To overcome these hurdles, which are often related to the uniform tissue distribution of free GC and their short half-life in biological fluids, new delivery vehicles have been developed including PEGylated liposomes, polymeric micelles, polymer-drug conjugates, inorganic scaffolds, and hybrid nanoparticles. While each of these nanoformulations has individual drawbacks, they are often superior to free GC in many aspects including therapeutic efficacy when tested in cell culture or animal models. Successful application of nanomedicines has been demonstrated in various models of neuroinflammatory diseases, cancer, rheumatoid arthritis, and several other disorders. Moreover, investigations using human cells and first clinical trials raise the hope that the new delivery vehicles may have the potential to make GC therapies more tolerable, specific and efficient in the future.
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    The FER rs4957796 TT genotype is associated with unfavorable 90-day survival in Caucasian patients with severe ARDS due to pneumonia. 

    Hinz, José; Büttner, Benedikt; Kriesel, Fabian; Steinau, Maximilian; Frederik Popov, Aron; Ghadimi, Michael; Beissbarth, Tim; Tzvetkov, Mladen; Bergmann, Ingo; Mansur, Ashham
    Scientific reports 2017-08-29; 7(1): Art. 9887
    A recent genome-wide association study showed that a genetic variant within the FER gene is associated with survival in patients with sepsis due to pneumonia. Because severe pneumonia is the main cause of acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), we aimed to investigate the effect of the FER polymorphism rs4957796 on the 90-day survival in patients with ARDS due to pneumonia. An assessment of a prospectively collected cohort of 441 patients with ARDS admitted to three intensive care units at the University Medical Centre identified 274 patients with ARDS due to pneumonia. The 90-day mortality risk was recorded as the primary outcome parameter. Sepsis-related organ failure assessment (SOFA) scores and organ support-free days were used as the secondary variables. FER rs4957796 TT-homozygous patients were compared with C-allele carriers. The survival analysis revealed a higher 90-day mortality risk among T homozygotes than among C-allele carriers (p = 0.0144) exclusively in patients with severe ARDS due to pneumonia. The FER rs4957796 TT genotype remained a significant covariate for the 90-day mortality risk in the multivariate analysis (hazard ratio, 4.62; 95% CI, 1.58-13.50; p = 0.0050). In conclusion, FER rs4957796 might act as a prognostic variable for survival in patients with severe ARDS due to pneumonia.
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    Considering technique of assessment and method for normalizing skeletal muscle mass. 

    Saitoh, Masakazu; Ishida, Junichi; Springer, Jochen
    Journal of cachexia, sarcopenia and muscle
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    The Functioning of a Cortex without Layers. 

    Guy, Julien; Staiger, Jochen F
    Frontiers in neuroanatomy 2017; 11: Art. 54
    A major hallmark of cortical organization is the existence of a variable number of layers, i.e., sheets of neurons stacked on top of each other, in which neurons have certain commonalities. However, even for the neocortex, variable numbers of layers have been described and it is just a convention to distinguish six layers from each other. Whether cortical layers are a structural epiphenomenon caused by developmental dynamics or represent a functionally important modularization of cortical computation is still unknown. Here we present our insights from the reeler mutant mouse, a model for a developmental, "molecular lesion"-induced loss of cortical layering that could serve as ground truth of what an intact layering adds to the cortex in terms of functionality. We could demonstrate that the reeler neocortex shows no inversion of cortical layers but rather a severe disorganization that in the primary somatosensory cortex leads to the complete loss of layers. Nevertheless, the somatosensory system is well organized. When exploring an enriched environment with specific sets of whiskers, activity-dependent gene expression takes place in the corresponding modules. Precise whisker stimuli lead to the functional activation of somatotopically organized barrel columns as visualized by intrinsic signal optical imaging. Similar results were obtained in the reeler visual system. When analyzing pathways that could be responsible for preservation of tactile perception, lemniscal thalamic projections were found to be largely intact, despite the smearing of target neurons across the cortical mantle. However, with optogenetic experiments we found evidence for a mild dispersion of thalamic synapse targeting on layer IV-spiny stellate cells, together with a general weakening in thalamocortical input strength. This weakening of thalamic inputs was compensated by intracortical mechanisms involving increased recurrent excitation and/or reduced feedforward inhibition. In conclusion, a layer loss so far only led to the detection of subtle defects in sensory processing by reeler mice. This argues in favor of a view in which cortical layers are not an essential component for basic perception and cognition. A view also supported by recent studies in birds, which can have remarkable cognitive capacities despite the lack of a neocortex with multiple cortical layers. In conclusion, we suggest that future studies directed toward understanding cortical functions should rather focus on circuits specified by functional cell type composition than mere laminar location.
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    Divergent co-transcriptomes of different host cells infected with Toxoplasma gondii reveal cell type-specific host-parasite interactions. 

    Swierzy, Izabela J.; Händel, Ulrike; Kaever, Alexander; Jarek, Michael; Scharfe, Maren; Schlüter, Dirk; Lüder, Carsten G. K.
    Scientific reports 2017-08-03; 7(1): Art. 7229
    The apicomplexan parasite Toxoplasma gondii infects various cell types in avian and mammalian hosts including humans. Infection of immunocompetent hosts is mostly asymptomatic or benign, but leads to development of largely dormant bradyzoites that persist predominantly within neurons and muscle cells. Here we have analyzed the impact of the host cell type on the co-transcriptomes of host and parasite using high-throughput RNA sequencing. Murine cortical neurons and astrocytes, skeletal muscle cells (SkMCs) and fibroblasts differed by more than 16,200 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) before and after infection with T. gondii. However, only a few hundred of them were regulated by infection and these largely diverged in neurons, SkMCs, astrocytes and fibroblasts indicating host cell type-specific transcriptional responses after infection. The heterogeneous transcriptomes of host cells before and during infection coincided with ~5,400 DEGs in T. gondii residing in different cell types. Finally, we identified gene clusters in both T. gondii and its host, which correlated with the predominant parasite persistence in neurons or SkMCs as compared to astrocytes or fibroblasts. Thus, heterogeneous expression profiles of different host cell types and the parasites' ability to adapting to them may govern the parasite-host cell interaction during toxoplasmosis.
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    Essential Function of the Serine Hydroxymethyl Transferase (SHMT) Gene During Rapid Syncytial Cell Cycles in Drosophila. 

    Winkler, Franziska; Kriebel, Maria; Clever, Michaela; Gröning, Stephanie; Großhans, Jörg
    G3 (Bethesda, Md.) 2017-07-05; 7(7) p.2305-2314
    Many metabolic enzymes are evolutionarily highly conserved and serve a central function in the catabolism and anabolism of cells. The serine hydroxymethyl transferase (SHMT) catalyzing the conversion of serine and glycine and vice versa feeds into tetrahydrofolate (THF)-mediated C1 metabolism. We identified a Drosophila mutation in SHMT (CG3011) in a screen for blastoderm mutants. Embryos from SHMT mutant germline clones specifically arrest the cell cycle in interphase 13 at the time of the midblastula transition (MBT) and prior to cellularization. The phenotype is due to a loss of enzymatic activity as it cannot be rescued by an allele with a point mutation in the catalytic center but by an allele based on the SHMT coding sequence from Escherichia coli The onset of zygotic gene expression and degradation of maternal RNAs in SHMT mutant embryos are largely similar to that in wild-type embryos. The specific timing of the defects in SHMT mutants indicates that at least one of the SHMT-dependent metabolites becomes limiting in interphase 13, if it is not produced by the embryo. Our data suggest that mutant eggs contain maternally-provided and SHMT-dependent metabolites in amounts that suffice for early development until interphase 13.
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    Robotic versus thoracoscopic lung resection: A systematic review and meta-analysis. 

    Emmert, Alexander; Straube, Carmen; Buentzel, Judith; Roever, Christian
    Medicine 2017-09; 96(35): Art. e7633
    BACKGROUND: Robotic video-assisted surgery (RVATS) has been reported to be equally effective to video-assisted surgery (VATS) in lung resection (pneumonectomy, lobectomy, and segmentectomy). Operation time, mortality, drainage duration, and length of hospitalization of patients undergoing either RVATS or VATS are compared in this meta-analysis. METHODS: A systematic research for articles meeting our inclusion criteria was performed using the PubMed database. Articles published from January 2011 to January 2016 were included. We used results of reported mortality, operation time, drainage duration, and hospitalization length for performing this meta-analysis. Mean difference and logarithmic odds ratio were used as summary statistics. RESULTS: Ten studies eligible were included into this analysis (5 studies for operation time, 3 studies for chest in tube days, 4 studies for length of hospitalization, and 6 studies for mortality). We were able to include 3375 subjects for RVATS and 58,683 subjects for VATS. Patients were mainly treated for lung cancer, metastatic foci, and benign lesions. We could not detect any difference between operation time; however, we found 2 trends showing that drainage duration and length of hospitalization are shorter for following RVATS than for following VATS. Mortality also is lower in patients undergoing RVATS. CONCLUSIONS: Therefore, we conclude that RVATS is a suitable minimal-invasive procedure for lung resection and suitable alternative to VATS. RVATS is as time-efficient as VATS and shows a trend to reduced hospital stay and drainage duration. More and better studies are required to provide reliable, unbiased evidence regarding the relative benefits of both methods.
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    Histone deacetylase class-I inhibition promotes epithelial gene expression in pancreatic cancer cells in a BRD4- and MYC-dependent manner 

    Mishra, Vivek Kumar; Wegwitz, Florian; Kosinsky, Robyn Laura; Sen, Madhobi; Baumgartner, Roland; Wulff, Tanja; Siveke, Jens T.; Schildhaus, Hans-Ulrich; Najafova, Zeynab; Kari, Vijayalakshmi; et al.
    Kohlhof, HellaHessmann, ElisabethJohnsen, Steven A.
    Nucleic Acids Research 2017; 45(11) p.6334-6349
    Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) is a highly aggressive cancer with a particularly dismal prognosis. Histone deacetylases (HDAC) are epigenetic modulators whose activity is frequently deregulated in various cancers including PDAC. In particular, class-I HDACs (HDAC 1, 2, 3 and 8) have been shown to play an important role in PDAC. In this study, we investigated the effects of the class Ispecific HDAC inhibitor (HDACi) 4SC-202 in multiple PDAC cell lines in promoting tumor cell differentiation. We show that 4SC-202 negatively affects TGF signaling and inhibits TGF -induced epithelial-tomesenchymal transition (EMT). Moreover, 4SC-202 markedly induced p21 (CDKN1A) expression and significantly attenuated cell proliferation. Mechanistically, genome-wide studies revealed that 4SC-202- induced genes were enriched for Bromodomaincontaining Protein-4 (BRD4) and MYC occupancy. BRD4, a well-characterized acetyllysine reader, has been shown to play a major role in regulating transcription of selected subsets of genes. Importantly, BRD4 and MYC are essential for the expression of a subgroup of genes induced by class-I HDACi. Taken together, our study uncovers a previously unknown role of BRD4 and MYC in eliciting the HDACimediated induction of a subset of genes and provides molecular insight into the mechanisms of HDACi action in PDAC.
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