Recent Submissions

  • Journal Article

    Bridging therapy is associated with improved cognitive function after large vessel occlusion stroke – an analysis of the German Stroke Registry 

    Ettelt, Philipp; Maier, Ilko L; Schnieder, Marlena; Bähr, Mathias; Behme, Daniel; Psychogios, Marios-Nikos; Liman, Jan
    Neurological Research and Practice. 2020 Jul 27;2(1):29
    Abstract Background The targeted use of endovascular therapy (EVT), with or without intravenous thrombolysis (IVT) in acute large cerebral vessel occlusion stroke (LVOS) has been proven to be superior compared to IVT alone. Despite favorable functional outcome, many patients complain about cognitive decline after EVT. If IVT in addition to EVT has positive effects on cognitive function is unclear. Methods We analyzed data from the German Stroke Registry (GSR, an open, multicenter and prospective observational study) and compared cognitive function 90 days after index ischemic stroke using MoCA in patients with independent (mRS ≤ 2 pts) and excellent (mRS = 0 pts) functional outcome receiving combined EVT and IVT (EVT + IVT) vs. EVT alone (EVT-IVT). Results Of the 2636 GSR patients, we included 166 patients with mRS ≤ 2 at 90 days in our analysis. Of these, 103 patients (62%) received EVT + IVT, 63 patients (38%) were treated with EVT alone. There was no difference in reperfusion status between groups (mTICI ≥ 2b in both groups at 95%, p = 0.65). Median MoCA score in the EVT + IVT group was 20 pts. (18–25 IQR) vs. 18 pts. (16–21 IQR) in the EVT-IVT group (p = 0.014). There were more patients with cognitive impairment (defined as MoCA < 26 pts) in the EVT-IVT group (54 patients (86%)) compared to the EVT + IVT group (78 patients (76%)). EVT + IVT was associated with a higher MoCA score at 90 days (mRS ≤ 2: p = 0.033, B = 2.39; mRS = 0: p = 0.021, B = 4.38). Conclusions In Patients with good functional outcome after LVOS, rates of cognitive impairment are lower with combined EVT and IVT compared to EVT alone. Trial registration ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT03356392 .
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  • Journal Article

    Plant species richness increases with light availability, but not variability, in temperate forests understorey 

    Dormann, Carsten F; Bagnara, Maurizio; Boch, Steffen; Hinderling, Judith; Janeiro-Otero, Andrea; Schäfer, Deborah; Schall, Peter; Hartig, Florian
    BMC Ecology. 2020 Jul 29;20(1):43
    Abstract Background Temperate forest understorey vegetation poses an excellent study system to investigate whether increases in resource availability lead to an increase in plant species richness. Most sunlight is absorbed by the species-poor tree canopy, making the much more species-rich understorey species inhabit a severely resource-limited habitat. Additionally, the heterogeneity of light availability, resulting from management-moderated tree composition and age structure, may contribute to species coexistence. One would therefore expect that the diversity in the herb layer correlates positively with either the overall light availability, or the light heterogeneity, depending on whether resource availability or heterogeneity are more important drivers of diversity. To test this idea, we assessed variability of light conditions in 75 forest plots across three ecoregions with four different methods. Results We correlated these data with vegetation relevés and found light availability to be strongly positively correlated with understorey plant species richness, as well as with understorey cover. Light variability (assessed with two approaches) within plots was positively correlated with transmittance, but did not improve the relationship further, suggesting that the main driver of species richness in this system is the overall resource availability. Two of the three beech-dominated regions exhibited near-identical effects of light transmittance, while the third, featuring pine alongside beech and thus with the longest gradient of transmittance and lowest species richness, displayed a weaker light response. Conclusions While site conditions are certainly responsible for the trees selected by foresters, for the resulting forest structure, and for the differences in plant species pools, our results suggest that light transmittance is a strong mediating factor of understorey plant species richness.
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  • Journal Article

    Differentiation of arterial and venous neurovascular conflicts estimates the clinical outcome after microvascular decompression in trigeminal neuralgia 

    Müller, Sebastian; Khadhraoui, Eya; Khanafer, Ali; Psychogios, Marios; Rohde, Veit; Tanrikulu, Levent
    BMC Neurology. 2020 Jul 14;20(1):279
    Abstract Background Balanced Steady State Free Precession (b-SSFP) sequences and the newly developed Fast-Spin-Echo (FSE)-sequences enable an optimized visualization of neurovascular compression (NVC) in patients with trigeminal neuralgia (TN). Arterial conflicts are mostly associated with a favorable outcome of microvascular decompression (MVD) compared to venous conflicts. An additional Time-of-Flight (TOF) angiography provides the differentiation between offending arteries and veins and a precise counselling of the patient concerning postoperative pain relief. The goal of this study was to analyze the reliability and impact of the combination of highly-resoluted MRI techniques on the correct prediction of the vessel type and the estimation of postoperative outcome of microvascular decompression (MVD). Methods In total, 48 patients (m/f: 32/16) underwent MVD for TN. All the preoperative imaging data (T2: b-SFFP and FSE, MRA: TOF) were compared to the intraoperative microsurgical findings during MVD. b-SFFP was available in 14 patients, FSE in 34 patients and an additional TOF sequence was available in 38 patients (9 times in combination with b-SSFP, 29 times in combination with FSE). The patients were categorized into four subgroups: 1) NVC negative, 2) venous NVC, 3) arterial NVC, 4) combined arterial and venous NVC. The preoperative MRI findings were compared to the intraoperative morphological findings. Postoperative pain relief was quantified by the Barrow Neurological Institute pain score. Results Twenty-five purely arterial NVC, 9 purely venous NVC and 5 combined arterial and venous NVC were detected by MRI. In 9 cases NVC was absent on MRI. Overall, the MRI findings correctly predicted the intraoperative findings in 91.7% of the 48 patients. The percentage of correct prediction increased from 80 to 94.7%, when TOF angiography was adjoined. Conclusion The visualization of the trigeminal nerve using sequences such as b-SSFP or FSE in combination with TOF angiography enables an optimized delineation of arterial and venous neurovascular conflicts and may allow a more reliable differentiation between veins and arteries, resulting in superior prediction of postoperative pain relief compared to T2 imaging data alone.
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  • Journal Article

    Spontaneous breathing, transpulmonary pressure and mathematical trickery 

    Gattinoni, Luciano; Marini, John J; Busana, Mattia; Chiumello, Davide; Camporota, Luigi
    Annals of Intensive Care. 2020 Jul 08;10(1):88
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  • Journal Article

    Does occupational licensing impact incomes? A replication study for the German crafts case 

    Fredriksen, Kaja
    Journal for Labour Market Research. 2020 Jul 06;54(1):8
    Abstract Large variation in the estimated income premium of occupational licensing can be found in the existing literature. I revisit the natural experimental design of a change in the German crafts regulation in 2004, which removed the traditional licensing requirement for self-employment in certain trades, using official survey data and difference-in-differences estimation. Previous studies of this deregulation have found significant, yet small effects on the incomes of employees in deregulated trades. I focus on the incomes of the self-employed and find no robust effects. Multiple channels through which occupational licensing may affect incomes such as price and quality competition in the regulated market and possible competitive pressure from outsiders are identified, which may also explain why the effects of occupational licensing on incomes appear to be context-specific.
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  • Journal Article

    Bedside calculation of mechanical power during volume- and pressure-controlled mechanical ventilation 

    Chiumello, Davide; Gotti, Miriam; Guanziroli, Mariateresa; Formenti, Paolo; Umbrello, Michele; Pasticci, Iacopo; Mistraletti, Giovanni; Busana, Mattia
    Critical Care. 2020 Jul 11;24(1):417
    Abstract Background Mechanical power (MP) is the energy delivered to the respiratory system over time during mechanical ventilation. Our aim was to compare the currently available methods to calculate MP during volume- and pressure-controlled ventilation, comparing different equations with the geometric reference method, to understand whether the easier to use surrogate formulas were suitable for the everyday clinical practice. This would warrant a more widespread use of mechanical power to promote lung protection. Methods Forty respiratory failure patients, sedated and paralyzed for clinical reasons, were ventilated in volume-controlled ventilation, at two inspiratory flows (30 and 60 L/min), and pressure-controlled ventilation with a similar tidal volume. Mechanical power was computed both with the geometric method, as the area between the inspiratory limb of the airway pressure and the volume, and with two algebraic methods, a comprehensive and a surrogate formula. Results The bias between the MP computed by the geometric method and by the comprehensive algebraic method during volume-controlled ventilation was respectively 0.053 (0.77, − 0.81) J/min and − 0.4 (0.70, − 1.50) J/min at low and high flows (r2 = 0.96 and 0.97, p < 0.01). The MP measured and computed by the two methods were highly correlated (r2 = 0.95 and 0.94, p < 0.01) with a bias of − 0.0074 (0.91, − 0.93) and − 1.0 (0.45, − 2.52) J/min at high-low flows. During pressure-controlled ventilation, the bias between the MP measured and the one calculated with the comprehensive and simplified methods was correlated (r2 = 0.81, 0.94, p < 0.01) with mean differences of − 0.001 (2.05, − 2.05) and − 0.81 (2.11, − 0.48) J/min. Conclusions Both for volume-controlled and pressure-controlled ventilation, the surrogate formulas approximate the reference method well enough to warrant their use in the everyday clinical practice. Given that these formulas require nothing more than the variables already displayed by the intensive care ventilator, a more widespread use of mechanical power should be encouraged to promote lung protection against ventilator-induced lung injury.
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  • Journal Article

    Motivations for people with cognitive impairment to complete an advance research directive – a qualitative interview study 

    Jongsma, Karin; Perry, Julia; Schicktanz, Silke; Radenbach, Katrin
    BMC Psychiatry. 2020 Jul 08;20(1):360
    Abstract Background Research with persons with dementia is important to better understand the causes of dementia and to develop more effective diagnostics, therapies, and preventive measures. Advance Research Directives (ARDs) have been suggested as a possible solution to include persons with dementia in research in an ethically sound way. Little is known about how people, especially those affected by cognitive impairment, understand and regard the use of ARDs, as empirical studies are mainly conducted with healthy, non-cognitively impaired, participants. Methods This qualitative study, a sub-study of a larger study on the evaluation of ARDs in the context of dementia research in Germany, consists of semi-structured in-depth interviews with 24 persons with cognitive impairment. Results Our results indicate that most participants consider ARDs a valuable tool for allowing them to make their own decisions. Many would prefer to draft an ARD when they are still healthy or soon after the diagnosis of cognitive impairment. Participants suggested that the completion of ARDs can be advanced with the provision of practical support and increased dissemination of information on ARDs in society. Conclusion Persons with subjective or mild cognitive impairment (SCI/MCI) suggested several motivating factors and concerns for completing an ARD. Clinicians need to be trained to accommodate patients’ needs for sufficient and adequate information. Furthermore, a standardised, partly pre-formulated template could be helpful for drafting an ARD. As such tested templates are currently not yet available, this addresses the urgent need for more translational and implementation research for the use of ARDs.
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  • Journal Article

    Interpretation bias modification to reduce body dissatisfaction – a randomized controlled pilot study in women with elevated weight and shape concerns 

    Bradatsch, Silvia; Vahl, Marlene D; Potterton, Rachel; Gordon, Gemma; Schmidt, Ulrike; Brockmeyer, Timo
    Journal of Eating Disorders. 2020 Jul 02;8(1):34
    Abstract Background Recent research has identified several cognitive biases in patients with eating disorders, such as a tendency to interpret ambiguous information about one’s own body in a negative way. The so-called “negative interpretation bias” is considered to be a key factor in maintaining maladaptive cognitions and behaviors in eating disorders. Studies on modification of the negative interpretation bias in eating disorders have yielded mixed results. This randomized controlled pilot study examined whether a specially adapted, computerized version of the Scrambled Sentences Task modifies negative interpretation bias in women with elevated body dissatisfaction. Methods The sample consisted of 40 normal-weight women with elevated body dissatisfaction, randomly assigned either to an intervention or a no-intervention control group (each n = 20). The intervention group received six sessions (within two weeks) of a newly-developed interpretation bias modification training that involved unscrambling positively valenced, body image-related sentences. The control group received no intervention. In both groups, body image-related negative interpretation bias (main outcome), trait body dissatisfaction and thin-ideal cue reactivity were assessed at baseline and two weeks later. Additionally, in the intervention condition, the trajectory of expected reductions in the thin-ideal internalization was measured during each training session. Results In both conditions, body image-related negative interpretation bias and trait body dissatisfaction decreased significantly from pre- to post-assessment; however, a specific effect imparted by the interpretation bias modification training was not found. Groups did not differ in thin-ideal cue reactivity. In the intervention group, thin-ideal internalization decreased significantly over the training sessions. Conclusions The findings do not support use of body image-related interpretation bias modification in its current form in the treatment of body dissatisfaction. Further research involving different versions of the training and clinical samples is warranted.
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  • Journal Article

    Absence of lymphatic vessels in term placenta 

    Becker, Jürgen; Tchagou Tchangou, Gilles E; Schmidt, Sonja; Zelent, Christina; Kahl, Fritz; Wilting, Jörg
    BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth. 2020 Jun 29;20(1):380
    Abstract Background There has been debate about the existence of lymphatic vessels in placenta. Lymphatic endothelial cell (LEC) markers such as LYVE-1 and podoplanin/D2–40 have been found, although PROX1 has not been detected. The most reliable marker for LECs is the double staining for CD31 and PROX1, which has not been performed yet. Methods We studied three term placentas and dissected them into three areas: i.) basal plate area, ii.) intermediate area, and iii.) chorionic plate area. We used immunofluorescence single and double staining with antibodies against CD31, PROX1, LYVE-1, VEGFR-3, D2–40/PDPN, CD34, CCBE-1, and vimentin, as well as nested PCR, qPCR, Western blot and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Results At TEM level we observed structures that have previously mistakenly been interpreted as lymphatics, however, we did not find any CD31/PROX1 double-positive cells in placenta. Absence of PROX1 was also noted by nested PCR, qPCR and Western blot. Also, LEC marker VEGFR-3 was expressed only in a small number of scattered leukocytes but was absent from vessels. The LEC marker D2–40/PDPN was expressed in most stromal cells, and the LEC marker LYVE-1 was found in a considerable number of stromal cells, but not in endothelial cells, which were positive for CD31, CD34, CCBE-1 and vimentin. Additionally, vimentin was found in stromal cells. Conclusions Our studies clearly show absence of lymphatics in term placenta. We also show that the functional area of the mother’s endometrium is not penetrated by lymphatics in term pregnancy.
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  • Journal Article

    Angioplasty with the scepter C dual lumen balloon catheter and postprocedural result evaluation in patients with subarachnoid hemorrhage related vasospasms 

    Tsogkas, Ioannis; Malinova, Vesna; Schregel, Katharina; Mielke, Dorothee; Behme, Daniel; Rohde, Veit; Knauth, Michael; Psychogios, Marios-Nikos
    BMC Neurology. 2020 Jun 29;20(1):260
    Abstract Background Delayed cerebral ischemia is one of the leading causes of death and disability in patients with subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH). Transluminal balloon angioplasty (TBA) is a therapeutic option for vasospasms affecting proximal intracranial arteries. Methods Aim of this study was to report our experience using the Scepter C balloon catheter in the treatment of cerebral vasospasms due to SAH and evaluate the postprocedural result with the iFlow tool. We reviewed cases of patients treated at our hospital from 2014 to 2018. Patients were screened with transcranial doppler sonography (TCD) and multimodal computed tomography. In case of significant vasospasms, patients were transferred to the angiography suite and treated. We used the iFlow tool to quantify and evaluate the angiographic results by measuring and comparing peak density values on angiograms before and after the mechanical dilation. Results The use of the Scepter C balloon catheter was feasible in all cases. Vasospasms of the anterior cerebral artery were treated in ten cases. We didn’t observe complications or vasospasm recurrences of the treated arteries. The temporal difference between distal vessels and the proximal reference vessel was significantly reduced from a mean of 53%, prior to dilatation, to 26% after the treatment. The difference between pre-dilatation and post-dilatation values was statistically significant for the anterior circulation at the proximal as well as at the distal vessels. Conclusions We successfully treated endovascularly patients suffering from cerebral vasospasms refractory to medical treatment using the Scepter C balloon catheter. We didn’t observe any complications. The therapeutic effect could be easily and reliably assessed with the iFlow tool.
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  • Journal Article

    Diverse and unique viruses discovered in the surface water of the East China Sea 

    Wu, Shuang; Zhou, Liang; Zhou, Yifan; Wang, Hongming; Xiao, Jinzhou; Yan, Shuling; Wang, Yongjie
    BMC Genomics. 2020 Jun 26;21(1):441
    Abstract Background Viruses are the most abundant biological entities on earth and play import roles in marine biogeochemical cycles. Here, viral communities in the surface water of the East China Sea (ECS) were collected from three representative regions of Yangshan Harbor (YSH), Gouqi Island (GQI), and the Yangtze River Estuary (YRE) and explored primarily through epifluorescence microscopy (EM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and metagenomics analysis. Results The virus-like particles (VLPs) in the surface water of the ECS were measured to be 106 to 107 VLPs/ml. Most of the isolated viral particles possessed a head-and-tail structure, but VLPs with unique morphotypes that had never before been observed in the realm of viruses were also found. The sequences related to known viruses in GenBank accounted for 21.1–22.8% of the viromic datasets from YSH, GQI, and YRE. In total, 1029 viral species were identified in the surface waters of the ECS. Among them, tailed phages turn out to make up the majority of viral communities, however a small number of Phycodnaviridae or Mimiviridae related sequences were also detected. The diversity of viruses did not appear to be a big difference among these three aquatic environments but their relative abundance was geographically variable. For example, the Pelagibacter phage HTVC010P accounted for 50.4% of the identified viral species in GQI, but only 9.1% in YSH and 11.7% in YRE. Sequences, almost identical to those of uncultured marine thaumarchaeal dsDNA viruses and magroviruses that infect Marine Group II Euryarchaeota, were confidently detected in the ECS viromes. The predominant classes of virome ORFs with functional annotations that were found were those involved in viral biogenesis. Virus-host connections, inferred from CRISPR spacer-protospacer mapping, implied newly discovered infection relationships in response to arms race between them. Conclusions Together, both identified viruses and unknown viral assemblages observed in this study were indicative of the complex viral community composition found in the ECS. This finding fills a major gap in the dark world of oceanic viruses of China and additionally contributes to the better understanding of global marine viral diversity, composition, and distribution.
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  • Journal Article

    Real-time cardiovascular magnetic resonance T1 and extracellular volume fraction mapping for tissue characterisation in aortic stenosis 

    Backhaus, Sören J; Lange, Torben; Beuthner, Bo E; Topci, Rodi; Wang, Xiaoqing; Kowallick, Johannes T; Lotz, Joachim; Seidler, Tim; Toischer, Karl; Zeisberg, Elisabeth M; et al.
    Puls, MiriamJacobshagen, ClaudiusUecker, MartinHasenfuß, GerdSchuster, Andreas
    Journal of Cardiovascular Magnetic Resonance. 2020 Jun 22;22(1):46
    Abstract Background Myocardial fibrosis is a major determinant of outcome in aortic stenosis (AS). Novel fast real-time (RT) cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) mapping techniques allow comprehensive quantification of fibrosis but have not yet been compared against standard techniques and histology. Methods Patients with severe AS underwent CMR before (n = 110) and left ventricular (LV) endomyocardial biopsy (n = 46) at transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR). Midventricular short axis (SAX) native, post-contrast T1 and extracellular volume fraction (ECV) maps were generated using commercially available modified Look-Locker Inversion recovery (MOLLI) (native: 5(3)3, post-contrast: 4(1)3(1)2) and RT single-shot inversion recovery Fast Low-Angle Shot (FLASH) with radial undersampling. Focal late gadolinium enhancement was excluded from T1 and ECV regions of interest. ECV and LV mass were used to calculate LV matrix volumes. Variability and agreements were assessed between RT, MOLLI and histology using intraclass correlation coefficients, coefficients of variation and Bland Altman analyses. Results RT and MOLLI derived ECV were similar for midventricular SAX slice coverage (26.2 vs. 26.5, p = 0.073) and septal region of interest (26.2 vs. 26.5, p = 0.216). MOLLI native T1 time was in median 20 ms longer compared to RT (p < 0.001). Agreement between RT and MOLLI was best for ECV (ICC > 0.91), excellent for post-contrast T1 times (ICC > 0.81) and good for native T1 times (ICC > 0.62). Diffuse collagen volume fraction by biopsies was in median 7.8%. ECV (RT r = 0.345, p = 0.039; MOLLI r = 0.40, p = 0.010) and LV matrix volumes (RT r = 0.45, p = 0.005; MOLLI r = 0.43, p = 0.007) were the only parameters associated with histology. Conclusions RT mapping offers fast and sufficient ECV and LV matrix volume calculation in AS patients. ECV and LV matrix volume represent robust and universally comparable parameters with associations to histologically assessed fibrosis and may emerge as potential targets for clinical decision making.
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  • Journal Article

    Unexpected high frequency of neurofibroma in the celiac ganglion of German cattle 

    Dammann, Insa; Wemheuer, Wiebke M; Wrede, Arne; Wemheuer, Wilhelm E; Campe, Amely; Petschenka, Jutta; Schulze-Sturm, Ulf; Hahmann, Uwe; Czerny, Claus P; Münster, Pia; et al.
    Brening, BertramKreienbrock, LotharHerden, ChristianeSchulz-Schaeffer, Walter J
    Veterinary Research. 2020 Jun 17;51(1):82
    Abstract In a study originally designed to find potential risk factors for bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) we examined tissues from 403 Holstein Frisian cattle in total. These included 20 BSE cattle and their 236 birth- and feeding cohort animals plus 32 offspring, 103 age, breed and district-matched control cattle and further twelve cattle with neurological signs. In addition to the obex, we examined the celiac ganglion, cervical cranial ganglion, trigeminal ganglion and proximal ganglion of the vagus nerve using histological techniques. Unexpectedly, we found a high number of neurofibroma, a benign peripheral nerve sheath tumor consisting of Schwann cells, fibroblasts and perineural cells. The neurofibroma were present only in the celiac ganglion and found during histologic examination. With a frequency of 9.91% in BSE cattle and their cohorts (case animals) and 9.09% in the age, breed and district matched control animals there seems to be no correlation between the occurrence of BSE and neurofibroma. Benign peripheral nerve sheath tumors have been described more often in cattle than in other domestic animals. Usually, they are incidental macroscopic findings in the thoracic ganglia during meat inspection. To our knowledge, there are no previous systematic histologic studies including bovine celiac ganglia at all. The high incidence of celiac ganglia neurofibroma may play a role in the frequently occurring abomasal displacements in Holstein Frisian cattle as the tumors might cause a gastrointestinal motility disorder. At present a genetic predisposition for these neoplasms cannot be ruled out.
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  • Journal Article

    Novel modified endoscopic mucosal resection of large GI lesions (> 20 mm) using an external additional working channel (AWC) may improve R0 resection rate: initial clinical experience 

    Sportes, A.; CFM, Jung; Gromski, M. A; Koehler, P.; Seif Amir Hosseini, A.; Kauffmann, P.; Ellenrieder, V.; Wedi, E.
    BMC Gastroenterology. 2020 Jun 19;20(1):195
    Abstract Background En-bloc resection of large, flat dysplastic mucosal lesions of the luminal GI tract can be challenging. In order to improve the efficacy of resection for lesions ≥2 cm and to optimize R0 resection rates of lesions suspected of harboring high-grade dysplasia or early adenocarcinoma, a novel grasp and snare EMR technique utilizing a novel over the scope additional accessory channel, termed EMR Plus (EMR+), was developed. The aim of this pilot study is to describe the early safety and efficacy data from the first in human clinical cases. Methods A novel external over-the-scope additional working channel (AWC) (Ovesco, Tuebingen, Germany) was utilized for the EMR+ procedure, allowing a second endoscopic device to be used through the AWC while using otherwise standard endoscopic equipment. The EMR+ technique allows tissue retraction and a degree of triangulation during endoscopic resection. We performed EMR+ procedure in 6 patients between 02/2018–12/2018 for lesions in the upper and lower GI tract. Results The EMR+ technique utilizing the AWC was performed successfully in 6 resection procedures of the upper and/or lower GI tract in 6 patients in 2 endoscopy centers. All resections were performed successfully with the EMR+ technique, all achieving an R0 resection. No severe adverse events occurred in any of the procedures. Conclusions The EMR+ technique, utilizing an additional working channel, had an acceptable safety and efficacy profile in this preliminary study demonstrating it’s first use in humans. This technique may allow an additional option to providers to remove complex, large mucosal-based lesions in the GI tract using standard endoscopic equipment and a novel AWC device.
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  • Journal Article

    Various effects of the expression of the xyloglucanase gene from Penicillium canescens in transgenic aspen under semi-natural conditions 

    Vidyagina, Elena O; Subbotina, Natalia M; Belyi, Vladimir A; Lebedev, Vadim G; Krutovsky, Konstantin V; Shestibratov, Konstantin A
    BMC Plant Biology. 2020 Jun 03;20(1):251
    Abstract Background Recombinant carbohydrases genes are used to produce transgenic woody plants with improved phenotypic traits. However, cultivation of such plants in open field is challenging due to a number of problems. Therefore, additional research is needed to alleviate them. Results Results of successful cultivation of the transgenic aspens (Populus tremula) carrying the recombinant xyloglucanase gene (sp-Xeg) from Penicillium canescens in semi-natural conditions are reported in this paper for the first time. Change of carbohydrate composition of wood was observed in transgenic aspens carrying the sp-Xeg gene. The transformed transgenic line Xeg-2-1b demonstrated accelerated growth and increased content of cellulose in wood of trees growing in both greenhouse and outside in comparison with the control untransformed line Pt. The accelerated growth was observed also in the transgenic line Xeg-1-1c. Thicker cell-wall and longer xylem fiber were also observed in both these transgenic lines. Undescribed earlier considerable reduction in the wood decomposition rate of the transgenic aspen stems was also revealed for the transformed transgenic lines. The decomposition rate was approximately twice as lower for the transgenic line Xeg-2-3b in comparison with the control untransformed line Pt. Conclusion A direct dependence of the phenotypic and biochemical traits on the expression of the recombinant gene sp-Xeg was demonstrated. The higher was the level of the sp-Xeg gene expression, the more pronounced were changes in the phenotypic and biochemical traits. All lines showed phenotypic changes in the leave traits. Our results showed that the plants carrying the recombinant sp-Xeg gene do not demonstrate a decrease in growth parameters in semi-natural conditions. In some transgenic lines, a change in the carbohydrate composition of the wood, an increase in the cell wall thickness, and a decrease in the rate of decomposition of wood were observed.
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  • Journal Article

    Correction to: Genome-wide SNP data unveils the globalization of domesticated pigs 

    Yang, Bin; Cui, Leilei; Perez-Enciso, Miguel; Traspov, Aleksei; Crooijmans, Richard P M A; Zinovieva, Natalia; Schook, Lawrence B; Archibald, Alan; Gatphayak, Kesinee; Knorr, Christophe; et al.
    Triantafyllidis, AlexAlexandri, PanoraiaSemiadi, GonoHanotte, OlivierDias, DeodáliaDovč, PeterUimari, PekkaIacolina, LauraScandura, MassimoGroenen, Martien A MHuang, LushengMegens, Hendrik-Jan
    Genetics Selection Evolution. 2020 Jun 04;52(1):30
    An amendment to this paper has been published and can be accessed via the original article.
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  • Journal Article

    Serosurvey of Treponema pallidum infection among children with skin ulcers in the Tarangire-Manyara ecosystem, northern Tanzania 

    Lubinza, Clara K C; Lueert, Simone; Hallmaier-Wacker, Luisa K; Ngadaya, Esther; Chuma, Idrissa S; Kazwala, Rudovick R; Mfinanga, Sayoki G M; Failing, Klaus; Roos, Christian; Knauf, Sascha
    BMC Infectious Diseases. 2020 Jun 03;20(1):392
    Abstract Background The first yaws eradication campaign reduced the prevalence of yaws by 95%. In recent years, however, yaws has reemerged and is currently subject to a second, ongoing eradication campaign. Yet, the epidemiological status of Tanzania and 75 other countries with a known history of human yaws is currently unknown. Contrary to the situation in humans in Tanzania, recent infection of nonhuman primates (NHPs) with the yaws bacterium Treponema pallidum subsp. pertenue (TPE) have been reported. In this study, we consider a One Health approach to investigate yaws and describe skin ulcers and corresponding T. pallidum serology results among children living in the Tarangire-Manyara ecosystem, an area with increasing wildlife-human interaction in northern Tanzania. Methods To investigate human yaws in Tanzania, we conducted a cross-sectional study to screen and interview skin-ulcerated children aged 6 to 15 years, who live in close proximity to two national parks with high numbers of naturally TPE-infected monkeys. Serum samples from children with skin ulcers were tested for antibodies against the bacterium using a treponemal (Treponema pallidum Particle Agglutination assay) and a non-treponemal (Rapid Plasma Reagin) test. Results A total of 186 children aged between 6 and 15 years (boys: 10.7 ± 2.1 (mean ± SD), N = 132; girls: 10.9 ± 2.0 (mean ± SD), N = 54) were enrolled. Seven children were sampled at health care facilities and 179 at primary schools. 38 children (20.4%) reported active participation in bushmeat hunting and consumption and 26 (13.9%) reported at least one physical contact with a NHP. None of the lesions seen were pathognomonic for yaws. Two children tested positive for treponemal antibodies (1.2%) in the treponemal test, but remained negative in the non-treponemal test. Conclusions We found no serological evidence of yaws among children in the Tarangire-Manyara ecosystem. Nevertheless, the close genetic relationship of human and NHPs infecting TPE strains should lead to contact prevention with infected NHPs. Further research investigations are warranted to study the causes and possible prevention measures of spontaneous chronic ulcers among children in rural Tanzania and to certify that the country is free from human yaws.
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  • Journal Article

    Why companies prefer applicants from non-immigrant families: investigating access to vocational training among low-qualified adolescents with an interlinked firm-applicant survey 

    Söhn, Janina
    Empirical Research in Vocational Education and Training. 2020 May 30;12(1):4
    Abstract In the German system of dual vocational training, in which companies recruit apprentices, graduates from low-level secondary schools (Hauptschule), and particularly those from immigrant families, are at a significant disadvantage regarding access to such apprenticeships. Previous qualitative studies have already pointed to the role of companies’ recruiting criteria for mechanisms of indirect discrimination, e.g., their desire for smooth social interaction within the firm. This article builds on a standardized survey among companies to which low-skilled adolescents successfully or unsuccessfully applied for dual vocational training. The company data are matched with secondary longitudinal survey data on the same girls and boys. Which recruiting criteria put ethnic minorities at a disadvantage and hence indirectly facilitate ethnic discrimination? The theoretical approach considers (knowledge of) the immigration country’s official language as both a functional requirement and a tool of hierarchical ethnic boundary making. In addition, concepts of social interaction within firms and respective norms as well as of homophily are subjected to an empirical test. Statistical results show that the below-average recruitment chances of applicants with a migration background are somewhat lower if companies stress a social fit criterion in their selection procedures. Furthermore, contrary to the initial hypothesis, ethnic minority youths are only substantially disadvantaged when applying to firms which consider the ability of verbal expression less crucial. Firms which consider this criterion very important may give applicants from immigrant families the chance to present themselves in a job interview and thus dispel ethnic stereotypes like the one that second-generation immigrant youths display serious language deficiencies.
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  • Journal Article

    Intravenous fluid therapy in the perioperative and critical care setting: Executive summary of the International Fluid Academy (IFA) 

    Malbrain, Manu L N G; Langer, Thomas; Annane, Djillali; Gattinoni, Luciano; Elbers, Paul; Hahn, Robert G; De laet, Inneke; Minini, Andrea; Wong, Adrian; Ince, Can; et al.
    Muckart, DavidMythen, MontyCaironi, PietroVan Regenmortel, Niels
    Annals of Intensive Care. 2020 May 24;10(1):64
    Abstract Intravenous fluid administration should be considered as any other pharmacological prescription. There are three main indications: resuscitation, replacement, and maintenance. Moreover, the impact of fluid administration as drug diluent or to preserve catheter patency, i.e., fluid creep, should also be considered. As for antibiotics, intravenous fluid administration should follow the four Ds: drug, dosing, duration, de-escalation. Among crystalloids, balanced solutions limit acid–base alterations and chloride load and should be preferred, as this likely prevents renal dysfunction. Among colloids, albumin, the only available natural colloid, may have beneficial effects. The last decade has seen growing interest in the potential harms related to fluid overloading. In the perioperative setting, appropriate fluid management that maintains adequate organ perfusion while limiting fluid administration should represent the standard of care. Protocols including a restrictive continuous fluid administration alongside bolus administration to achieve hemodynamic targets have been proposed. A similar approach should be considered also for critically ill patients, in whom increased endothelial permeability makes this strategy more relevant. Active de-escalation protocols may be necessary in a later phase. The R.O.S.E. conceptual model (Resuscitation, Optimization, Stabilization, Evacuation) summarizes accurately a dynamic approach to fluid therapy, maximizing benefits and minimizing harms. Even in specific categories of critically ill patients, i.e., with trauma or burns, fluid therapy should be carefully applied, considering the importance of their specific aims; maintaining peripheral oxygen delivery, while avoiding the consequences of fluid overload.
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  • Journal Article

    Correction to: Towards the restoration of the Mesoamerican Biological Corridor for large mammals in Panama: comparing multi-species occupancy to movement models 

    Meyer, Ninon F V; Moreno, Ricardo; Reyna-Hurtado, Rafael; Signer, Johannes; Balkenhol, Niko
    Movement Ecology. 2020 May 26;8(1):20
    An amendment to this paper has been published and can be accessed via the original article.
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