Salt stress induces the formation of a novel type of ‘pressure wood’ in two Populus species
Janz, Dennis ; Lautner, Silke ; Wildhagen, Henning ; Behnke, Katja ; Schnitzler, Jörg-Peter ; Rennenberg, Heinz ; Fromm, Jörg ; Polle, Andrea
Citable Link (URL):http://resolver.sub.uni-goettingen.de/purl?gs-1/7404
Salinity causes osmotic stress and limits biomass production of plants. The goal of this study was to investigate mechanisms underlying hydraulic adaptation to salinity. • Anatomical, ecophysiological and transcriptional responses to salinity were investigated in the xylem of a salt-sensitive (Populus · canescens) and a salt-tolerant species (Populus euphratica). • Moderate salt stress, which suppressed but did not abolish photosynthesis and radial growth in P. · canescens, resulted in hydraulic adaptation by increased vessel frequencies and decreased vessel lumina. Transcript abundances of a suite of genes (FLA, COB-like, BAM, XET, etc.) previously shown to be activated during tension wood formation, were collectively suppressed in developing xylem, whereas those for stress and defense-related genes increased. A subset of cell wall-related genes was also suppressed in salt-exposed P. euphratica, although this species largely excluded sodium and showed no anatomical alterations. Salt exposure influenced cell wall composition involving increases in the lignin : carbohydrate ratio in both species. • In conclusion, hydraulic stress adaptation involves cell wall modifications reciprocal to tension wood formation that result in the formation of a novel type of reaction wood in upright stems named ‘pressure wood’. Our data suggest that transcriptional co-regulation of a core set of genes determines reaction wood composition.
Sponsored by EU
We are grateful to S. Wolfart and C. Kettner for excellent technical assistance, to the German Science foundation (DFG) for funding Poplar Research Group Germany (FOR496, Po362 ⁄ 12, Po362 ⁄ 13, Re515 ⁄ 20, Schn653 ⁄ 4) and to the European Commission for supporting parts of this study within the Seventh Framework Program for Research, Project Energypoplar (FP7- 211917).