Muscle mass, muscle strength, and functional capacity in patients with heart failure of Chagas disease and other aetiologies
Fonseca, Guilherme Wesley Peixoto da ; Garfias Macedo, Tania ; Ebner, Nicole ; Santos, Marcelo Rodrigues ; Souza, Francis Ribeiro ; Mady, Charles ; Takayama, Liliam ; Pereira, Rosa Maria Rodrigues et al.
Citable Link (URL):http://resolver.sub.uni-goettingen.de/purl?gs-1/17699
Aims Patients with Chagas disease and heart failure (HF) have a poor prognosis similar to that of patients with ischaemic or dilated cardiomyopathy. However, the impact of body composition and muscle strength changes in these aetiologies is still unknown. We aimed to evaluate these parameters across aetiologies in two distinct cohort studies [TESTOsterone‐Heart Failure trial (TESTO‐HF; Brazil) and Studies Investigating Co‐morbidities Aggravating Heart Failure (SICA‐HF; Germany)]. Methods and results A total of 64 male patients with left ventricular ejection fraction ≤40% were matched for body mass index and New York Heart Association class, including 22 patients with Chagas disease (TESTO‐HF; Brazil), and 20 patients with dilated cardiomyopathy and 22 patients with ischaemic heart disease (SICA‐HF; Germany). Lean body mass (LBM), appendicular lean mass (ALM), and fat mass were assessed by dual energy X‐ray absorptiometry. Sarcopenia was defined as ALM divided by height in metres squared <7.0 kg/m$^2$ (ALM/height$^2$) and handgrip strength cut‐off for men according to the European Working Group on Sarcopenia in Older People. All patients performed maximal cardiopulmonary exercise testing. Forearm blood flow (FBF) was measured by venous occlusion plethysmography. Chagasic and ischaemic patients had lower total fat mass (16.3 ± 8.1 vs. 19.3 ± 8.0 vs. 27.6 ± 9.4 kg; P < 0.05) and reduced peak oxygen consumption (VO$_2$) (1.17 ± 0.36 vs. 1.15 ± 0.36 vs. 1.50 ± 0.45 L/min; P < 0.05) than patients with dilated cardiomyopathy, respectively. Chagasic patients showed a trend towards decreased LBM when compared with ischaemic patients (48.3 ± 7.6 vs. 54.2 ± 6.3 kg; P = 0.09). Chagasic patients showed lower handgrip strength (27 ± 8 vs. 37 ± 11 vs. 36 ± 14 kg; P < 0.05) and FBF (1.84 ± 0.54 vs. 2.75 ± 0.76 vs. 3.42 ± 1.21 mL/min/100 mL; P < 0.01) than ischaemic and dilated cardiomyopathy patients, respectively. There was no statistical difference in the distribution of sarcopenia between groups (P = 0.87). In addition, FBF correlated positively with LBM (r = 0.31; P = 0.012), ALM (r = 0.25; P = 0.046), and handgrip strength (r = 0.36; P = 0.004). In a logistic regression model using peak VO$_2$ as the dependent variable, haemoglobin (odds ratio, 1.506; 95% confidence interval, 1.043–2.177; P = 0.029) and ALM (odds ratio, 1.179; 95% confidence interval, 1.011–1.374; P = 0.035) were independent predictors for peak VO$_2$ adjusted by age, left ventricular ejection fraction, New York Heart Association, creatinine, and FBF. Conclusions Patients with Chagas disease and HF have decreased fat mass and exhibit reduced peripheral blood flow and impaired muscle strength compared with ischaemic HF patients. In addition, patients with Chagas disease and HF show a tendency to have greater reduction in total LBM, with ALM remaining an independent predictor of reduced functional capacity in these patients. The percentage of patients affected by sarcopenia was equal between groups.
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