Laser Ablated Periodic Nanostructures on Titanium and Steel Implants Influence Adhesion and Osteogenic Differentiation of Mesenchymal Stem Cells
Böker, Kai Oliver ; Kleinwort, Frederick ; Klein-Wiele, Jan-Hendrick ; Simon, Peter ; Jäckle, Katharina ; Taheri, Shahed ; Lehmann, Wolfgang ; Schilling, Arndt F.
Citable Link (URL):http://resolver.sub.uni-goettingen.de/purl?gs-1/17507
Metal implants used in trauma surgeries are sometimes difficult to remove after the completion of the healing process due to the strong integration with the bone tissue. Periodic surface micro- and nanostructures can directly influence cell adhesion and differentiation on metallic implant materials. However, the fabrication of such structures with classical lithographic methods is too slow and cost-intensive to be of practical relevance. Therefore, we used laser beam interference ablation structuring to systematically generate periodic nanostructures on titanium and steel plates. The newly developed laser process uses a special grating interferometer in combination with an industrial laser scanner and ultrashort pulse laser source, allowing for fast, precise, and cost-effective modification of metal surfaces in a single step process. A total of 30 different periodic topologies reaching from linear over crossed to complex crossed nanostructures with varying depths were generated on steel and titanium plates and tested in bone cell culture. Reduced cell adhesion was found for four different structure types, while cell morphology was influenced by two different structures. Furthermore, we observed impaired osteogenic differentiation for three structures, indicating reduced bone formation around the implant. This efficient way of surface structuring in combination with new insights about its influence on bone cells could lead to newly designed implant surfaces for trauma surgeries with reduced adhesion, resulting in faster removal times, reduced operation times, and reduced complication rates.
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