Designing the Next Generation of Fe$^0$-Based Filters for Decentralized Safe Drinking Water Treatment: A Conceptual Framework
Yang, Huichen ; Hu, Rui ; Ndé-Tchoupé, Arnaud Igor ; Gwenzi, Willis ; Ruppert, Hans ; Noubactep, Chicgoua
Citable Link (URL):http://resolver.sub.uni-goettingen.de/purl?gs-1/17481
The ambitious United Nations Sustainable Development Goal for 2030 to “leave no one behind” concerning safe drinking water calls for the development of universally applicable and affordable decentralized treatment systems to provide safe drinking water. Published results suggest that well-designed biological sand filters (BSFs) amended with metallic iron (Fe$^0$-BSFs) have the potential to achieve this goal. Fe$^0$-BSFs quantitatively remove pathogens and a myriad of chemical pollutants. The available data were achieved under various operating conditions. A comparison of independent research results is almost impossible, especially because the used Fe$^0$ materials are not characterized for their intrinsic reactivity. This communication summarizes the state-of-the-art knowledge on designing Fe$^0$-BSFs for households and small communities. The results show that significant research progress has been made on Fe$^0$-BSFs. However, well-designed laboratory and field experiments are required to improve the available knowledge in order to develop the next generation of adaptable and scalable designs of Fe$^0$-BSFs in only two years. Tools to alleviate the permeability loss, the preferential flow, and the use of exhausted filters are presented.
These documents are avalilable under the license: