Pre-treatment with the viral Toll-like receptor 3 agonist poly(I:C) modulates innate immunity and protects neutropenic mice infected intracerebrally with Escherichia coli
Ribes, Sandra ; Arcilla, Christa ; Ott, Martina ; Schütze, Sandra ; Hanisch, Uwe-Karsten ; Nessler, Stefan ; Nau, Roland
Citable Link (URL):http://resolver.sub.uni-goettingen.de/purl?gs-1/17124
Abstract Background Individuals with impaired immunity are more susceptible to infections than immunocompetent subjects. No vaccines are currently available to induce protection against E. coli meningoencephalitis. This study evaluated the potential of poly(I:C) pre-treatment to induce trained immunity. Poly(I:C) was administered as a non-specific stimulus of innate immune responses to protect immunocompetent and neutropenic wild-type mice from a subsequent challenge by the intracranial injection of E. coli K1. Methods Three days prior to infection, mice received an intraperitoneal injection of poly(I:C) or vehicle. Kaplan-Meier survival curves were analyzed. In short-term experiments, bacterial titers and the inflammatory response were characterized in the blood, cerebellum, and spleen homogenates. NK cell subpopulations in the brain and spleen were analyzed by flow cytometry. Numbers of microglia and activation scores were evaluated by histopathology. Results Pre-treatment with 200 μg poly(I:C) increased survival time, reduced mortality, and enhanced bacterial clearance in the blood, cerebellum, and spleen at early infection in neutropenic mice. Poly(I:C)-mediated protection correlated with an augmented number of NK cells (CD45+NK1.1+CD3−) and Iba-1+ microglial cells and a higher production of IFN-γ in the brain. In the spleen, levels of CCL5/RANTES and IFN-γ were increased and sustained in surviving poly(I:C)-treated animals for 14 days after infection. In immunocompetent animals, survival time was not significantly prolonged in poly(I:C)-treated animals although poly(I:C) priming reduced brain bacterial concentrations compared with vehicle-injected animals at early infection. Conclusions Pre-treatment with the viral TLR3 agonist poly(I:C) modulated innate immune responses and strengthened the resistance of neutropenic mice against E. coli K1 meningoencephalitis.