Micronutrient Depletion in Heart Failure: Common, Clinically Relevant and Treatable
Cvetinovic, Natasa ; Loncar, Goran ; Isakovic, Andjelka M. ; von Haehling, Stephan ; Doehner, Wolfram ; Lainscak, Mitja ; Farkas, Jerneja
Citable Link (URL):http://resolver.sub.uni-goettingen.de/purl?gs-1/17107
Heart failure (HF) is a chronic condition with many imbalances, including nutritional issues. Next to sarcopenia and cachexia which are clinically evident, micronutrient deficiency is also present in HF. It is involved in HF pathophysiology and has prognostic implications. In general, most widely known micronutrients are depleted in HF, which is associated with symptoms and adverse outcomes. Nutritional intake is important but is not the only factor reducing the micronutrient availability for bodily processes, because absorption, distribution, and patient comorbidity may play a major role. In this context, interventional studies with parenteral micronutrient supplementation provide evidence that normalization of micronutrients is associated with improvement in physical performance and quality of life. Outcome studies are underway and should be reported in the following years.