Land Use Change and Water Quality Use for Irrigation Alters Drylands Soil Fungal Community in the Mezquital Valley, Mexico.
Citable Link (URL):http://resolver.sub.uni-goettingen.de/purl?gs-1/16440
Soil fungal communities provide important ecosystem services, however, some soil borne representatives damage agricultural productivity. Composition under land-use change scenarios, especially in drylands, is rarely studied. Here, the soil fungal community composition and diversity of natural shrubland was analyzed and compared with agricultural systems irrigated with different water quality, namely rain, fresh water, dam-stored, and untreated wastewater. Superficial soil samples were collected during the dry and rainy seasons. Amplicon-based sequencing of the ITS2 region was performed on total DNA extractions and used the amplicon sequence variants to predict specific fungal trophic modes with FUNGuild. Additionally, we screened for potential pathogens of crops and humans and assessed potential risks. Fungal diversity and richness were highest in shrubland and least in the wastewater-irrigated soil. Soil moisture together with soil pH and exchangeable sodium were the strongest drivers of the fungal community. The abundance of saprophytic fungi remained constant among the land use systems, while symbiotic and pathogenic fungi of plants and animals had the lowest abundance in soil irrigated with untreated wastewater. We found lineage-specific adaptations to each land use system: fungal families associated to shrubland, rainfed and part of the freshwater were adapted to drought, hence sensitive to exchangeable sodium content and most of them to N and P content. Taxa associated to freshwater, dam wastewater and untreated wastewater irrigated systems show the opposite trend. Additionally, we identified potentially harmful human pathogens that might be a health risk for the population.