Guanylate-Binding Proteins 2 and 5 Exert Broad Antiviral Activity by Inhibiting Furin-Mediated Processing of Viral Envelope Proteins
Braun, Elisabeth ; Hotter, Dominik ; Koepke, Lennart ; Zech, Fabian ; Groß, Rüdiger ; Sparrer, Konstantin M.J. ; Müller, Janis A. ; Pfaller, Christian K. et al.
Citable Link (URL):http://resolver.sub.uni-goettingen.de/purl?gs-1/16188
Guanylate-binding protein (GBP) 5 is an interferon (IFN)-inducible cellular factor reducing HIV-1 infectivity by an incompletely understood mechanism. Here, we show that this activity is shared by GBP2, but not by other members of the human GBP family. GBP2/5 decrease the activity of the cellular proprotein convertase furin, which mediates conversion of the HIV-1 envelope protein (Env) precursor gp160 into mature gp120 and gp41. Because this process primes HIV-1 Env for membrane fusion, viral particles produced in the presence of GBP2/5 are poorly infectious due to increased incorporation of non-functional gp160. Furin activity is critical for the processing of envelope glycoproteins of many viral pathogens. Consistently, GBP2/5 also inhibit Zika, measles, and influenza A virus replication and decrease infectivity of viral particles carrying glycoproteins of Marburg and murine leukemia viruses. Collectively, our results show that GPB2/5 exert broad antiviral activity by suppressing the activity of the virus-dependency factor furin.