Recent Submissions

  • Journal Article

    Microtiming Deviations and Swing Feel in Jazz 

    Datseris, George; Ziereis, Annika; Albrecht, Thorsten; Hagmayer, York; Priesemann, Viola; Geisel, Theo
    Scientific Reports 2019; 9(1): Art. 19824
    Jazz music that swings has the fascinating power to elicit a pleasant sensation of flow in listeners and the desire to synchronize body movements with the music. Whether microtiming deviations (MTDs), i.e. small timing deviations below the bar or phrase level, enhance the swing feel is highly debated in the current literature. Studies on other groove related genres did not find evidence for a positive impact of MTDs. The present study addresses jazz music and swing in particular, as there is some evidence that microtiming patterns are genre-specific. We recorded twelve piano jazz standards played by a professional pianist and manipulated the natural MTDs of the recordings in systematic ways by quantizing, expanding and inverting them. MTDs were defined with respect to a grid determined by the average swing ratio. The original and manipulated versions were presented in an online survey and evaluated by 160 listeners with various musical skill levels and backgrounds. Across pieces the quantized versions (without MTDs) were rated slightly higher and versions with expanded MTDs were rated lower with regard to swing than the original recordings. Unexpectedly, inversion had no impact on swing ratings except for two pieces. Our results suggest that naturally fluctuating MTDs are not an essential factor for the swing feel.
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  • Journal Article

    Emergence and suppression of cooperation by action visibility in transparent games 

    Unakafov, Anton M.; Schultze, Thomas; Gail, Alexander; Moeller, Sebastian; Kagan, Igor; Eule, Stephan; Wolf, Fred
    PLOS Computational Biology 2020; 16(1): Art. e1007588
    Real-world agents, humans as well as animals, observe each other during interactions and choose their own actions taking the partners' ongoing behaviour into account. Yet, classical game theory assumes that players act either strictly sequentially or strictly simultaneously without knowing each other's current choices. To account for action visibility and provide a more realistic model of interactions under time constraints, we introduce a new game-theoretic setting called transparent games, where each player has a certain probability of observing the partner's choice before deciding on its own action. By means of evolutionary simulations, we demonstrate that even a small probability of seeing the partner's choice before one's own decision substantially changes the evolutionary successful strategies. Action visibility enhances cooperation in an iterated coordination game, but reduces cooperation in a more competitive iterated Prisoner's Dilemma. In both games, "Win-stay, lose-shift" and "Tit-for-tat" strategies are predominant for moderate transparency, while a "Leader-Follower" strategy emerges for high transparency. Our results have implications for studies of human and animal social behaviour, especially for the analysis of dyadic and group interactions.
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  • Journal Article

    Response of tree diversity and community composition to forest use intensity along a tropical elevational gradient 

    Monge‐González, María Leticia; Craven, Dylan; Krömer, Thorsten; Castillo‐Campos, Gonzalo; Hernández‐Sánchez, Alejandro; Guzmán‐Jacob, Valeria; Guerrero‐Ramírez, Nathaly; Kreft, Holger
    Applied Vegetation Science 2019; 23(1) p.69-79
    Question: Land-use change and intensification are currently the most pervasive threats to tropical biodiversity. Yet, their effects on biodiversity change with eleva-tion are unknown. Here, we examine how tree diversity and community composition vary with elevation and how the effects of forest use intensity on tree diversity and community composition change within elevations.Location: Eastern slopes of the Cofre de Perote mountain, state of Veracruz, Mexico.Methods: We assessed tree diversity and composition using a sampling design in which elevation was crossed with three levels of forest use intensity: old-growth, degraded, and secondary forests. We established 120 20 m × 20 m forest plots, lo-cated at eight sites between 0 m and 3,545 m. At each site, five replicate plots were inventoried for each level of forest use intensity.Results: Our analyses revealed an interactive effect between elevation and forest use intensity affecting tree diversity and community composition along the eleva-tional gradient. Contrasting effects of forest use intensity within elevation resulted in tree diversity following a low-plateau pattern for old-growth and a bimodal pat-tern for degraded and secondary forests. Along the entire elevational gradient, there were 217 tree species distributed within 154 genera and 80 families. Species accu-mulation curves revealed that forests at 0 m and 1,500 m elevation showed differ-ences in species richness among forest use intensities. In contrast, species richness did not differ between old-growth forest and the other forest use intensities in five of the eight studied elevations. In terms of community composition, secondary forests differed from old-growth and degraded forests.Conclusion: Our results suggest that the interactive effects of elevation and for-est use intensity change tree diversity patterns and community composition along a tropical elevational gradient. Degraded forests were similar to old-growth forests in terms of species diversity and composition, suggesting that they may act as a safe-guard of tree diversity in human-dominated tropical landscapes.
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  • Journal Article

    TRY plant trait database – enhanced coverage and open access 

    Kattge, Jens; Bönisch, Gerhard; Díaz, Sandra; Lavorel, Sandra; Prentice, Iain Colin; Leadley, Paul; Tautenhahn, Susanne; Werner, Gijsbert D. A.; Aakala, Tuomas; Abedi, Mehdi; et al.
    Acosta, Alicia T. R.Adamidis, George C.Adamson, KairiAiba, MasahiroAlbert, Cécile H.Alcántara, Julio M.Alcázar C, CarolinaAleixo, IzabelaAli, HamadaAmiaud, BernardAmmer, ChristianAmoroso, Mariano M.Anand, MadhurAnderson, CarolynAnten, NielsAntos, JosephApgaua, Deborah Mattos GuimarãesAshman, Tia‐LynnAsmara, Degi HarjaAsner, Gregory P.Aspinwall, MichaelAtkin, OwenAubin, IsabelleBaastrup‐Spohr, LarsBahalkeh, KhadijehBahn, MichaelBaker, TimothyBaker, William J.Bakker, Jan P.Baldocchi, DennisBaltzer, JenniferBanerjee, ArindamBaranger, AnneBarlow, JosBarneche, Diego R.Baruch, ZdravkoBastianelli, DenisBattles, JohnBauerle, WilliamBauters, MarijnBazzato, ErikaBeckmann, MichaelBeeckman, HansBeierkuhnlein, CarlBekker, ReneeBelfry, GavinBelluau, MichaelBeloiu, MirelaBenavides, RaquelBenomar, LahcenBerdugo‐Lattke, Mary LeeBerenguer, ErikaBergamin, RodrigoBergmann, JoanaBergmann Carlucci, MarcosBerner, LoganBernhardt‐Römermann, MarkusBigler, ChristofBjorkman, Anne D.Blackman, ChrisBlanco, CarolinaBlonder, BenjaminBlumenthal, DanaBocanegra‐González, Kelly T.Boeckx, PascalBohlman, StephanieBöhning‐Gaese, KatrinBoisvert‐Marsh, LauraBond, WilliamBond‐Lamberty, BenBoom, ArnoudBoonman, Coline C. F.Bordin, KauaneBoughton, Elizabeth H.Boukili, VanessaBowman, David M. J. S.Bravo, SandraBrendel, Marco RichardBroadley, Martin R.Brown, Kerry A.Bruelheide, HelgeBrumnich, FedericoBruun, Hans HenrikBruy, DavidBuchanan, Serra W.Bucher, Solveig FranziskaBuchmann, NinaBuitenwerf, RobertBunker, Daniel E.Bürger, JanaBurrascano, SabinaBurslem, David F. R. P.Butterfield, Bradley J.Byun, ChaehoMarques, MarciaScalon, Marina C.Caccianiga, MarcoCadotte, MarcCailleret, MaximeCamac, JamesCamarero, Jesús JulioCampany, CourtneyCampetella, GiandiegoCampos, Juan AntonioCano‐Arboleda, LauraCanullo, RobertoCarbognani, MicheleCarvalho, FabioCasanoves, FernandoCastagneyrol, BastienCatford, Jane A.Cavender‐Bares, JeannineCerabolini, Bruno E. L.Cervellini, MarcoChacón‐Madrigal, EduardoChapin, KennethChapin, F. StuartChelli, StefanoChen, Si‐ChongChen, AnpingCherubini, PaoloChianucci, FrancescoChoat, BrendanChung, Kyong‐SookChytrý, MilanCiccarelli, DanielaColl, LluísCollins, Courtney G.Conti, LuisaCoomes, DavidCornelissen, Johannes H. C.Cornwell, William K.Corona, PiermariaCoyea, MarieCraine, JosephCraven, DylanCromsigt, Joris P. G. M.Csecserits, AnikóCufar, KatarinaCuntz, MatthiasSilva, Ana CarolinaDahlin, Kyla M.Dainese, MatteoDalke, IgorDalle Fratte, MicheleDang‐Le, Anh TuanDanihelka, JiríDannoura, MasakoDawson, SamanthaBeer, Arend JacobusDe Frutos, AngelDe Long, Jonathan R.Dechant, BenjaminDelagrange, SylvainDelpierre, NicolasDerroire, GéraldineDias, Arildo S.Diaz‐Toribio, Milton HugoDimitrakopoulos, Panayiotis G.Dobrowolski, MarkDoktor, DanielDřevojan, PavelDong, NingDransfield, JohnDressler, StefanDuarte, LeandroDucouret, EmilieDullinger, StefanDurka, WalterDuursma, RemkoDymova, OlgaE‐Vojtkó, AnnaEckstein, Rolf LutzEjtehadi, HamidElser, JamesEmilio, ThaiseEngemann, KristineErfanian, Mohammad BagherErfmeier, AlexandraEsquivel‐Muelbert, AdrianeEsser, GerdEstiarte, MarcDomingues, Tomas F.Fagan, William F.Fagúndez, JaimeFalster, Daniel S.Fan, YingFang, JingyunFarris, EmmanueleFazlioglu, FatihFeng, YanhaoFernandez‐Mendez, FernandoFerrara, CarlottaFerreira, JoiceFidelis, AlessandraFinegan, BryanFirn, JenniferFlowers, Timothy J.Flynn, Dan F. B.Fontana, VeronikaForey, EstelleForgiarini, CristianeFrançois, LouisFrangipani, MarceloFrank, DorotheaFrenette‐Dussault, CedricFreschet, Grégoire T.Fry, Ellen L.Fyllas, Nikolaos M.Mazzochini, Guilherme G.Gachet, SophieGallagher, RachaelGanade, GisleneGanga, FrancescaGarcía‐Palacios, PabloGargaglione, VerónicaGarnier, EricGarrido, Jose LuisGasper, André LuísGea‐Izquierdo, GuillermoGibson, DavidGillison, Andrew N.Giroldo, AeltonGlasenhardt, Mary‐ClaireGleason, SeanGliesch, MarianaGoldberg, EmmaGöldel, BastianGonzalez‐Akre, ErikaGonzalez‐Andujar, Jose L.González‐Melo, AndrésGonzález‐Robles, AnaGraae, Bente JessenGranda, ElenaGraves, SarahGreen, Walton A.Gregor, ThomasGross, NicolasGuerin, Greg R.Günther, AngelaGutiérrez, Alvaro G.Haddock, LillieHaines, AnnaHall, JeffersonHambuckers, AlainHan, WenxuanHarrison, Sandy P.Hattingh, WesleyHawes, Joseph E.He, TianhuaHe, PengchengHeberling, Jacob MasonHelm, AveliinaHempel, StefanHentschel, JörnHérault, BrunoHereş, Ana‐MariaHerz, KatharinaHeuertz, MyriamHickler, ThomasHietz, PeterHiguchi, PedroHipp, Andrew L.Hirons, AndrewHock, MariaHogan, James AaronHoll, KarenHonnay, OlivierHornstein, DanielHou, EnqingHough‐Snee, NateHovstad, Knut AndersIchie, TomoakiIgić, BorisIlla, EstelaIsaac, MarneyIshihara, MasaeIvanov, LeonidIvanova, LarissaIversen, Colleen M.Izquierdo, JordiJackson, Robert B.Jackson, BenjaminJactel, HervéJagodzinski, Andrzej M.Jandt, UteJansen, StevenJenkins, ThomasJentsch, AnkeJespersen, Jens Rasmus PlantenerJiang, Guo‐FengJohansen, Jesper LiengaardJohnson, DavidJokela, Eric J.Joly, Carlos AlfredoJordan, Gregory J.Joseph, Grant StuartJunaedi, DeckyJunker, Robert R.Justes, EricKabzems, RichardKane, JeffreyKaplan, ZdenekKattenborn, TejaKavelenova, LyudmilaKearsley, ElizabethKempel, AnneKenzo, TanakaKerkhoff, AndrewKhalil, Mohammed I.Kinlock, Nicole L.Kissling, Wilm DanielKitajima, KaoruKitzberger, ThomasKjøller, RasmusKlein, TamirKleyer, MichaelKlimešová, JitkaKlipel, JoiceKloeppel, BrianKlotz, StefanKnops, Johannes M. H.Kohyama, TakashiKoike, FumitoKollmann, JohannesKomac, BenjaminKomatsu, KimberlyKönig, ChristianKraft, Nathan J. B.Kramer, KoenKreft, HolgerKühn, IngolfKumarathunge, DushanKuppler, JonasKurokawa, HirokoKurosawa, YokoKuyah, ShemLaclau, Jean‐PaulLafleur, BenoitLallai, ErikLamb, EricLamprecht, AndreaLarkin, Daniel J.Laughlin, DanielLe Bagousse‐Pinguet, YoannMaire, GuerricRoux, Peter C.Roux, ElizabethLee, TaliLens, FredericLewis, Simon L.Lhotsky, BarbaraLi, YuanzhiLi, XineLichstein, Jeremy W.Liebergesell, MarioLim, Jun YingLin, Yan‐ShihLinares, Juan CarlosLiu, ChunjiangLiu, DaijunLiu, UdayanganiLivingstone, StuartLlusià, JoanLohbeck, MadelonLópez‐García, ÁlvaroLopez‐Gonzalez, GabrielaLososová, ZdeňkaLouault, FrédériqueLukács, Balázs A.Lukeš, PetrLuo, YunjianLussu, MicheleMa, SiyanMaciel Rabelo Pereira, CamillaMack, MichelleMaire, VincentMäkelä, AnnikkiMäkinen, HarriMalhado, Ana Claudia MendesMallik, AzimManning, PeterManzoni, StefanoMarchetti, ZuleicaMarchino, LucaMarcilio‐Silva, ViniciusMarcon, EricMarignani, MichelaMarkesteijn, LarsMartin, AdamMartínez‐Garza, CristinaMartínez‐Vilalta, JordiMašková, TerezaMason, KellyMason, NormanMassad, Tara JoyMasse, JacyntheMayrose, ItayMcCarthy, JamesMcCormack, M. LukeMcCulloh, KatherineMcFadden, Ian R.McGill, Brian J.McPartland, Mara Y.Medeiros, Juliana S.Medlyn, BelindaMeerts, PierreMehrabi, ZiaMeir, PatrickMelo, Felipe P. L.Mencuccini, MaurizioMeredieu, CélineMessier, JulieMészáros, IlonaMetsaranta, JuhaMichaletz, Sean T.Michelaki, ChrysanthiMigalina, SvetlanaMilla, RubenMiller, Jesse E. D.Minden, VanessaMing, RayMokany, KarelMoles, Angela T.Molnár, AttilaMolofsky, JaneMolz, MartinMontgomery, Rebecca A.Monty, ArnaudMoravcová, LenkaMoreno‐Martínez, AlvaroMoretti, MarcoMori, Akira S.Mori, ShigetaMorris, DaveMorrison, JaneMucina, LadislavMueller, SandraMuir, Christopher D.Müller, Sandra CristinaMunoz, FrançoisMyers‐Smith, Isla H.Myster, Randall W.Nagano, MasahiroNaidu, ShawnaNarayanan, AyyappanNatesan, BalachandranNegoita, LukaNelson, Andrew S.Neuschulz, Eike LenaNi, JianNiedrist, GeorgNieto, JhonNiinemets, ÜloNolan, RachaelNottebrock, HenningNouvellon, YannNovakovskiy, AlexanderNystuen, Kristin OddenO'Grady, AnthonyO'Hara, KevinO'Reilly‐Nugent, AndrewOakley, SimonOberhuber, WalterOhtsuka, ToshiyukiOliveira, RicardoÖllerer, KingaOlson, Mark E.Onipchenko, VladimirOnoda, YusukeOnstein, Renske E.Ordonez, Jenny C.Osada, NoriyukiOstonen, IvikaOttaviani, GianluigiOtto, SarahOverbeck, Gerhard E.Ozinga, Wim A.Pahl, Anna T.Paine, C. E. TimothyPakeman, Robin J.Papageorgiou, Aristotelis C.Parfionova, EvgeniyaPärtel, MeelisPatacca, MarcoPaula, SusanaPaule, JurajPauli, HaraldPausas, Juli G.Peco, BegoñaPenuelas, JosepPerea, AntonioPeri, Pablo LuisPetisco‐Souza, Ana CarolinaPetraglia, AlessandroPetritan, Any MaryPhillips, Oliver L.Pierce, SimonPillar, Valério D.Pisek, JanPomogaybin, AlexandrPoorter, HendrikPortsmuth, AngelikaPoschlod, PeterPotvin, CatherinePounds, DevonPowell, A. ShaferPower, Sally A.Prinzing, AndreasPuglielli, GiacomoPyšek, PetrRaevel, ValerieRammig, AnjaRansijn, JohannesRay, Courtenay A.Reich, Peter B.Reichstein, MarkusReid, Douglas E. B.Réjou‐Méchain, MaximeDios, Victor RescoRibeiro, SabinaRichardson, SarahRiibak, KerstiRillig, Matthias C.Riviera, FiammaRobert, Elisabeth M. R.Roberts, ScottRobroek, BjornRoddy, AdamRodrigues, Arthur ViniciusRogers, AlistairRollinson, EmilyRolo, VictorRömermann, ChristineRonzhina, DinaRoscher, ChristianeRosell, Julieta A.Rosenfield, Milena FerminaRossi, ChristianRoy, David B.Royer‐Tardif, SamuelRüger, NadjaRuiz‐Peinado, RicardoRumpf, Sabine B.Rusch, Graciela M.Ryo, MasahiroSack, LawrenSaldaña, AngelaSalgado‐Negret, BeatrizSalguero‐Gomez, RobertoSanta‐Regina, IgnacioSantacruz‐García, Ana CarolinaSantos, JoaquimSardans, JordiSchamp, BrandonScherer‐Lorenzen, MichaelSchleuning, MatthiasSchmid, BernhardSchmidt, MarcoSchmitt, SylvainSchneider, Julio V.Schowanek, Simon D.Schrader, JulianSchrodt, FranziskaSchuldt, BernhardSchurr, FrankSelaya Garvizu, GaliaSemchenko, MarinaSeymour, ColleenSfair, Julia C.Sharpe, Joanne M.Sheppard, Christine S.Sheremetiev, SergeShiodera, SatomiShipley, BillShovon, Tanvir AhmedSiebenkäs, AlrunSierra, CarlosSilva, VascoSilva, MateusSitzia, TommasoSjöman, HenrikSlot, MartijnSmith, Nicholas G.Sodhi, DarwinSoltis, PamelaSoltis, DouglasSomers, BenSonnier, GrégorySørensen, Mia VedelSosinski, Enio EgonSoudzilovskaia, Nadejda A.Souza, Alexandre F.Spasojevic, MarkoSperandii, Marta GaiaStan, Amanda B.Stegen, JamesSteinbauer, KlausStephan, Jörg G.Sterck, FrankStojanovic, Dejan B.Strydom, TanyaSuarez, Maria LauraSvenning, Jens‐ChristianSvitková, IvanaSvitok, MarekSvoboda, MiroslavSwaine, EmilySwenson, NathanTabarelli, MarceloTakagi, KentaroTappeiner, UlrikeTarifa, RubénTauugourdeau, SimonTavsanoglu, CagatayBeest, MariskaTedersoo, LehoThiffault, NelsonThom, DominikThomas, EvertThompson, KenThornton, Peter E.Thuiller, WilfriedTichý, LubomírTissue, DavidTjoelker, Mark G.Tng, David Yue PhinTobias, JosephTörök, PéterTarin, TonantzinTorres‐Ruiz, José M.Tóthmérész, BélaTreurnicht, MartinaTrivellone, ValeriaTrolliet, FranckTrotsiuk, VolodymyrTsakalos, James L.Tsiripidis, IoannisTysklind, NiklasUmehara, ToruUsoltsev, VladimirVadeboncoeur, MatthewVaezi, JamilValladares, FernandoVamosi, JanaBodegom, Peter M.Breugel, MichielVan Cleemput, ElisaWeg, MartineMerwe, StephniPlas, FonsSande, Masha T.Kleunen, MarkVan Meerbeek, KoenraadVanderwel, MarkVanselow, Kim AndréVårhammar, AngelicaVarone, LauraVasquez Valderrama, Maribel YeseniaVassilev, KirilVellend, MarkVeneklaas, Erik J.Verbeeck, HansVerheyen, KrisVibrans, AlexanderVieira, ImaVillacís, JaimeViolle, CyrilleVivek, PandiWagner, KatrinWaldram, MatthewWaldron, AnthonyWalker, Anthony P.Waller, MartynWalther, GabrielWang, HanWang, FengWang, WeiqiWatkins, HarryWatkins, JamesWeber, UlrichWeedon, James T.Wei, LipingWeigelt, PatrickWeiher, EvanWells, Aidan W.Wellstein, CamillaWenk, ElizabethWestoby, MarkWestwood, AlanaWhite, Philip JohnWhitten, MarkWilliams, MathewWinkler, Daniel E.Winter, KlausWomack, ChevonneWright, Ian J.Wright, S. JosephWright, JustinPinho, Bruno X.Ximenes, FabianoYamada, ToshihiroYamaji, KeikoYanai, RuthYankov, NikolayYguel, BenjaminZanini, Kátia JanainaZanne, Amy E.Zelený, DavidZhao, Yun‐PengZheng, JingmingZheng, JiZiemińska, KasiaZirbel, Chad R.Zizka, GeorgZo‐Bi, Irié CasimirZotz, GerhardWirth, Christian
    Global Change Biology 2019; 26(1) p.119-188
    Plant traits-the morphological, anatomical, physiological, biochemical and phenological characteristics of plants-determine how plants respond to environmental factors, affect other trophic levels, and influence ecosystem properties and their benefits and detriments to people. Plant trait data thus represent the basis for a vast area of research spanning from evolutionary biology, community and functional ecology, to biodiversity conservation, ecosystem and landscape management, restoration, biogeography and earth system modelling. Since its foundation in 2007, the TRY database of plant traits has grown continuously. It now provides unprecedented data coverage under an open access data policy and is the main plant trait database used by the research community worldwide. Increasingly, the TRY database also supports new frontiers of trait-based plant research, including the identification of data gaps and the subsequent mobilization or measurement of new data. To support this development, in this article we evaluate the extent of the trait data compiled in TRY and analyse emerging patterns of data coverage and representativeness. Best species coverage is achieved for categorical traits-almost complete coverage for 'plant growth form'. However, most traits relevant for ecology and vegetation modelling are characterized by continuous intraspecific variation and trait-environmental relationships. These traits have to be measured on individual plants in their respective environment. Despite unprecedented data coverage, we observe a humbling lack of completeness and representativeness of these continuous traits in many aspects. We, therefore, conclude that reducing data gaps and biases in the TRY database remains a key challenge and requires a coordinated approach to data mobilization and trait measurements. This can only be achieved in collaboration with other initiatives.
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  • Journal Article

    Disruption of Arabidopsis neutral ceramidases 1 and 2 results in specific sphingolipid imbalances triggering different phytohormone‐dependent plant cell death programmes 

    Zienkiewicz, Agnieszka; Gömann, Jasmin; König, Stefanie; Herrfurth, Cornelia; Liu, Yi‐Tse; Meldau, Dorothea; Feussner, Ivo
    New Phytologist p.1-19
    Sphingolipids act as regulators of programmed cell death (PCD) and the plant defence response. The homeostasis between long-chain base (LCB) and ceramide (Cer) seems to play an important role in executions of PCD. Therefore, deciphering the role of neutral ceramidases (NCER) is crucial to identify the sphingolipid compounds that trigger and execute PCD. We performed comprehensive sphingolipid and phytohormone analyses of Arabidopsis ncer mutants, combined with gene expression profiling and microscopic analyses. While ncer1 exhibited early leaf senescence (developmentally controlled PCD - dPCD) and an increase in hydroxyceramides, ncer2 showed spontaneous cell death (pathogen-triggered PCD-like - pPCD) accompanied by an increase in LCB t18:0 at 35 d, respectively. Loss of NCER1 function resulted in accumulation of jasmonoyl-isoleucine (JA-Ile) in the leaves, whereas disruption of NCER2 was accompanied by higher levels of salicylic acid (SA) and increased sensitivity to Fumonisin B1 (FB1 ). All mutants were also found to activate plant defence pathways. These data strongly suggest that NCER1 hydrolyses ceramides whereas NCER2 functions as a ceramide synthase. Our results reveal an important role of NCER in the regulation of both dPCD and pPCD via a tight connection between the phytohormone and sphingolipid levels in these two processes.
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  • Journal Article

    Student Teachers’ Knowledge to Enable Problem-Solving for Sustainable Development 

    Richter-Beuschel, Lisa; Bögeholz, Susanne
    Sustainability 2020; 12(1): Art. 79
    Education is a central strategy in terms of sustainable development (SD) and can contribute to solving global challenges like biodiversity loss and climate change. Content knowledge represents one base for teaching education for sustainable development (ESD). Therefore, identifying teaching and learning prerequisites regarding SD challenges in teacher education is crucial. The focus of the paper was to assess and learn more about student teachers’ procedural knowledge regarding issues of biodiversity and climate change, by using an expert benchmark. The aims of the study are to describe and identify (i) di erences between students’ and experts’ e ectiveness estimations, (ii) di erences in bachelor and master students’ procedural knowledge, and (iii) di erences between procedural knowledge of students studying di erent ESD-relevant subjects. Student teachers at eight German universities (n = 236) evaluated the e ectiveness of solution strategies to SD challenges. The results showed high deviations in the e ectiveness estimations of experts and students and, therefore, di ering procedural knowledge. The lack of student teachers’ interdisciplinary knowledge to reduce biodiversity loss and climate change seemed to be largely independent of their study program and ESD-relevant subject. One reason for this may be the generally low number of ESD-relevant courses they attended. This study suggests further longitudinal research in order to make clear statements about changes in SD-related knowledge during teacher education.
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  • Journal Article

    In vivo optochemical control of cell contractility at single‐cell resolution 

    Kong, Deqing; Lv, Zhiyi; Häring, Matthias; Lin, Benjamin; Wolf, Fred; Großhans, Jörg
    EMBO reports 2019; 20(12): Art. e47755
    The spatial and temporal dynamics of cell contractility plays a key role in tissue morphogenesis, wound healing, and cancer invasion. Here, we report a simple optochemical method to induce cell contractions in vivo during Drosophila morphogenesis at single-cell resolution. We employed the photolabile Ca2+ chelator o-nitrophenyl EGTA to induce bursts of intracellular free Ca2+ by laser photolysis in the epithelial tissue. Ca2+ bursts appear within seconds and are restricted to individual target cells. Cell contraction reliably followed within a minute, causing an approximately 50% drop in the cross-sectional area. Increased Ca2+ levels are reversible, and the target cells further participated in tissue morphogenesis. Depending on Rho kinase (ROCK) activity but not RhoGEF2, cell contractions are paralleled with non-muscle myosin II accumulation in the apico-medial cortex, indicating that Ca2+ bursts trigger non-muscle myosin II activation. Our approach can be, in principle, adapted to many experimental systems and species, as no specific genetic elements are required.
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  • Journal Article

    Multi-temporal RapidEye Tasselled Cap data for land cover classification 

    Raab, Christoph; Tonn, B.; Meißner, M.; Balkenhol, N.; Isselstein, J.
    European Journal of Remote Sensing 2019; 52(1) p.653-666
    Land cover mapping can be seen as a key element to understand the spatial distribution of habitats and thus to sustainable management of natural resources. Multi-temporal remote sensing data are a valuable data source for land cover mapping. However, the increased amount of data requires effective machine learning algorithms and data compression approaches. In this study, the Random Forest and C 5.0 classification algorithms were applied to (1) a multi-temporal Tasselled-Cap-transformed, (2) top of atmosphere and (3) surface reflectance RapidEye time-series. The overall accuracies ranged from 91.44% to 91.80%, with only minor differences between algorithms and datasets. The McNemar test showed, however, significant differences between the Tasselled-Cap-transformed and untransformed mapping results in most cases. The temporal profiles for the Tasselled-Cap-transformed RapidEye data indicated a good separability between considered classes. The phenological profiles of vegetated surfaces followed a typical green-up curve for the Greenness Tasselled-Cap-index. A permutation-based variable importance measure indicated that late autumn should be considered as most important phenological phase contributing to the classification model performance. The results suggested that the RapidEye Tasselled Cap Transformation, which was designed for agricultural applications, can be an effective data compression tool, suitable to map heterogeneous landscapes with no measurable negative impact on classification accuracy.
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  • Journal Article

    Conditional gene expression reveals stage‐specific functions of the unfolded protein response in the Ustilago maydis– maize pathosystem 

    Schmitz, Lara; Kronstad, James W.; Heimel, Kai
    Molecular Plant Pathology
    Ustilago maydis is a model organism for the study of biotrophic plant-pathogen interactions. The sexual and pathogenic development of the fungus are tightly connected since fusion of compatible haploid sporidia is prerequisite for infection of the host plant, maize (Zea mays). After plant penetration, the unfolded protein response (UPR) is activated and required for biotrophic growth. The UPR is continuously active throughout all stages of pathogenic development in planta. However, since development of UPR deletion mutants stops directly after plant penetration, the role of an active UPR at later stages of development remained to be determined. Here, we establish a gene expression system for U. maydis that uses endogenous, conditionally active promoters to either induce or repress expression of a gene of interest during different stages of plant infection. Integration of the expression constructs into the native genomic locus and removal of resistance cassettes were required to obtain a wild-type-like expression pattern. This indicates that genomic localization and chromatin structure are important for correct promoter activity and gene expression. By conditional expression of the central UPR regulator, Cib1, in U. maydis, we show that a functional UPR is required for continuous plant defence suppression after host infection and that U. maydis relies on a robust control system to prevent deleterious UPR hyperactivation.
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  • Journal Article

    Quantifying Information Modification in Developing Neural Networks via Partial Information Decomposition 

    Wibral, Michael; Finn, Conor; Wollstadt, Patricia; Lizier, Joseph; Priesemann, Viola
    Entropy 2017; 19(9): Art. 494
    Information processing performed by any system can be conceptually decomposed into the transfer, storage and modification of information—an idea dating all the way back to the work of Alan Turing. However, formal information theoretic definitions until very recently were only available for information transfer and storage, not for modification. This has changed with the extension of Shannon information theory via the decomposition of the mutual information between inputs to and the output of a process into unique, shared and synergistic contributions from the inputs, called a partial information decomposition (PID). The synergistic contribution in particular has been identified as the basis for a definition of information modification. We here review the requirements for a functional definition of information modification in neuroscience, and apply a recently proposed measure of information modification to investigate the developmental trajectory of information modification in a culture of neurons vitro, using partial information decomposition. We found that modification rose with maturation, but ultimately collapsed when redundant information among neurons took over. This indicates that this particular developing neural system initially developed intricate processing capabilities, but ultimately displayed information processing that was highly similar across neurons, possibly due to a lack of external inputs. We close by pointing out the enormous promise PID and the analysis of information modification hold for the understanding of neural systems.
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  • Journal Article

    A key role for foxQ2 in anterior head and central brain patterning in insects 

    Kitzmann, Peter; Weißkopf, Matthias; Schacht, Magdalena Ines; Bucher, Gregor
    Development 2017; 144(16) p.2969-2981
    Anterior patterning of animals is based on a set of highly conserved transcription factors but the interactions within the protostome anterior gene regulatory network (aGRN) remain enigmatic. Here, we identify the red flour beetle Tribolium castaneum ortholog of foxQ2 (Tc-foxQ2) as a novel upstream component of the aGRN. It is required for the development of the labrum and higher order brain structures, namely the central complex and the mushroom bodies. We reveal Tc-foxQ2 interactions by RNAi and heat shock-mediated misexpression. Surprisingly, Tc-foxQ2 and Tc-six3 mutually activate each other, forming a novel regulatory module at the top of the aGRN. Comparisons of our results with those of sea urchins and cnidarians suggest that foxQ2 has acquired more upstream functions in the aGRN during protostome evolution. Our findings expand the knowledge on foxQ2 gene function to include essential roles in epidermal development and central brain patterning.
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  • Journal Article

    Specific expression and function of the Six3 optix in Drosophila serially homologous organs 

    Al Khatib, Amer; Siomava, Natalia; Iannini, Antonella; Posnien, Nico; Casares, Fernando
    Biology Open 2017; 6(8) p.1155-1164
    Organ size and pattern results from the integration of two positional information systems. One global information system, encoded by the Hox genes, links organ type with position along the main body axis. Within specific organs, local information is conveyed by signaling molecules that regulate organ growth and pattern. The mesothoracic (T2) wing and the metathoracic (T3) haltere of Drosophila represent a paradigmatic example of this coordination. The Hox gene Ultrabithorax (Ubx), expressed in the developing T3, selects haltere identity by, among other processes, modulating the production and signaling efficiency of Dpp, a BMP2-like molecule that acts as a major regulator of size and pattern. However, the mechanisms of the Hox-signal integration in this well-studied system are incomplete. Here, we have investigated this issue by studying the expression and function of the Six3 transcription factor optix during Drosophila wing and haltere development. We find that in both organs, Dpp defines the expression domain of optix through repression, and that the specific position of this domain in wing and haltere seems to reflect the differential signaling profile among these organs. We show that optix expression in wing and haltere primordia is conserved beyond Drosophila in other higher diptera. In Drosophila, optix is necessary for the growth of wing and haltere. In the wing, optix is required for the growth of the most anterior/proximal region (the 'marginal cell') and for the correct formation of sensory structures along the proximal anterior wing margin; the halteres of optix mutants are also significantly reduced. In addition, in the haltere, optix is necessary for the suppression of sensory bristles.
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  • Journal Article

    Changes in Nematode Communities and Functional Diversity With the Conversion of Rainforest Into Rubber and Oil Palm Plantations 

    Krashevska, Valentyna; Kudrin, Alexey A.; Widyastuti, Rahayu; Scheu, Stefan
    Frontiers in Ecology and Evolution 2019; 7: Art. 487
    Focusing on nematodes and their well-developed indices of community, ecosystem structure and function, we investigated the effects of the conversion of rainforest into rubber and oil palm plantations in Sumatra, Indonesia. Land use did not affect the total abundance of litter- and soil-dwelling nematodes, neither in riparian nor in well-drained sites. However, the rainforest nematode community differed from communities in plantations, with differences in litter being more pronounced compared to soil. In litter, fungivores and nematodes with short generation time (c-p2) increased in monoculture plantations, while that of bacterivores, herbivores, and nematodes with longer generation time and higher sensitivity to disturbances (c-p3) decreased. This indicates higher environmental pressure on nematodes in monoculture plantations than in rainforest. In soil of monoculture plantations, bacterivores, and c-p3 nematodes decreased while herbivores increased. This suggests that the damage of plants by nematodes in oil palm plantations exceeds that in rainforest. Overall, nematode functional diversity indices suggest that the stability of the decomposer community is higher in rainforest compared to monoculture plantations. Importantly, functional diversity indices were much more meaningful than nematode abundance. Further, changes with land use manifested more in litter than in soil, reflecting that nematode communities in soil are buffered against changes in land use and associated environmental conditions. Therefore, to fully assess changes in the structure and functioning of decomposer systems with changes in land use, the litter layer, which often receives little attention, requires more careful consideration.
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  • Journal Article

    Adaptive Control Strategies for Interlimb Coordination in Legged Robots: A Review 

    Aoi, Shinya; Manoonpong, Poramate; Ambe, Yuichi; Matsuno, Fumitoshi; Wörgötter, Florentin
    Frontiers in Neurorobotics 2017; 11: Art. 39
    Walking animals produce adaptive interlimb coordination during locomotion in accordance with their situation. Interlimb coordination is generated through the dynamic interactions of the neural system, the musculoskeletal system, and the environment, although the underlying mechanisms remain unclear. Recently, investigations of the adaptation mechanisms of living beings have attracted attention, and bio-inspired control systems based on neurophysiological findings regarding sensorimotor interactions are being developed for legged robots. In this review, we introduce adaptive interlimb coordination for legged robots induced by various factors (locomotion speed, environmental situation, body properties, and task). In addition, we show characteristic properties of adaptive interlimb coordination, such as gait hysteresis and different time-scale adaptations. We also discuss the underlying mechanisms and control strategies to achieve adaptive interlimb coordination and the design principle for the control system of legged robots.
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  • Journal Article

    Diversity in spatial scope of contrast adaptation among mouse retinal ganglion cells 

    Khani, Mohammad Hossein; Gollisch, Tim
    Journal of Neurophysiology 2017; 118(6) p.3024-3043
    Retinal ganglion cells adapt to changes in visual contrast by adjusting their response kinetics and sensitivity. While much work has focused on the time scales of these adaptation processes, less is known about the spatial scale of contrast adaptation. For example, do small, localized contrast changes affect a cell's signal processing across its entire receptive field? Previous investigations have provided conflicting evidence, suggesting that contrast adaptation occurs either locally within subregions of a ganglion cell's receptive field or globally over the receptive field in its entirety. Here, we investigated the spatial extent of contrast adaptation in ganglion cells of the isolated mouse retina through multielectrode-array recordings. We applied visual stimuli so that ganglion cell receptive fields contained regions where the average contrast level changed periodically as well as regions with constant average contrast level. This allowed us to analyze temporal stimulus integration and sensitivity separately for stimulus regions with and without contrast changes. We found that the spatial scope of contrast adaptation depends strongly on cell identity, with some ganglion cells displaying clear local adaptation, whereas others, in particular large transient ganglion cells, adapted globally to contrast changes. Thus, the spatial scope of contrast adaptation in mouse retinal ganglion cells appears to be cell-type specific. This could reflect differences in mechanisms of contrast adaptation and may contribute to the functional diversity of different ganglion cell types.NEW & NOTEWORTHY Understanding whether adaptation of a neuron in a sensory system can occur locally inside the receptive field or whether it always globally affects the entire receptive field is important for understanding how the neuron processes complex sensory stimuli. For mouse retinal ganglion cells, we here show that both local and global contrast adaptation exist and that this diversity in spatial scope can contribute to the functional diversity of retinal ganglion cell types.
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  • Journal Article

    Similar factors underlie tree abundance in forests in native and alien ranges 

    Sande, Masha T.; Bruelheide, Helge; Dawson, Wayne; Dengler, Jürgen; Essl, Franz; Field, Richard; Haider, Sylvia; Kleunen, Mark; Kreft, Holger; Pagel, Joern; et al.
    Pergl, JanPurschke, OliverPyšek, PetrWeigelt, PatrickWinter, MartenAttorre, FabioAubin, IsabelleBergmeier, ErwinChytrý, MilanDainese, MatteoDe Sanctis, MicheleFagundez, JaimeGolub, ValentinGuerin, Greg R.Gutiérrez, Alvaro G.Jandt, UteJansen, FlorianJiménez‐Alfaro, BorjaKattge, JensKearsley, ElizabethKlotz, StefanKramer, KoenMoretti, MarcoNiinemets, ÜloPeet, Robert K.Penuelas, JosepPetřík, PetrReich, Peter B.Sandel, BrodySchmidt, MarcoSibikova, MariaViolle, CyrilleWhitfeld, Timothy J. S.Wohlgemuth, ThomasKnight, Tiffany M.
    Global Ecology and Biogeography p.1-14
    Aim: Alien plant species can cause severe ecological and economic problems, and therefore attract a lot of research interest in biogeography and related fields. To identify potential future invasive species, we need to better understand the mechanisms underlying the abundances of invasive tree species in their new ranges, and whether these mechanisms differ between their native and alien ranges. Here, we test two hypotheses: that greater relative abundance is promoted by (a) functional difference from locally co-occurring trees, and (b) higher values than locally co-occurring trees for traits linked to competitive ability. Location: Global. Time period: Recent. Major taxa studied: Trees. Methods: We combined three global plant databases: sPlot vegetation-plot database, TRY plant trait database and Global Naturalized Alien Flora (GloNAF) database. We used a hierarchical Bayesian linear regression model to assess the factors associated with variation in local abundance, and how these relationships vary between native and alien ranges and depend on species’ traits. Results: In both ranges, species reach highest abundance if they are functionally similar to co-occurring species, yet are taller and have higher seed mass and wood density than co-occurring species.
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  • Journal Article

    Healthcare providers’ perception of the referral system in maternal care facilities in Aceh, Indonesia: a cross-sectional study 

    Diba, Farah; Ichsan, Ichsan; Muhsin, Muhsin; Marthoenis, Marthoenis; Sofyan, Hizir; Andalas, Mohammad; Monfared, Ida; Richert, Katharina; Kaplan, Lennart; Rogge, Lisa; et al.
    Doria, SiobhanSamadi, SamadiVollmer, Sebastian
    BMJ Open 2019; 9(12): Art. e031484
    OBJECTIVES: Our study investigates the barriers perceived by staff in the referral systems in maternal healthcare facilities across Aceh province in Indonesia. DESIGN: With a cross-sectional approach, two sets of surveys were administered during September to October 2016 in 32 sampling units of our study. We also collected referral data in the form of the frequency of ingoing and outgoing referral cases per facility. SETTING: In three districts, Aceh Besar, Banda Aceh and Bireuen, a total of 32 facilities including hospitals, community health centres, and private midwife clinics that met the criteria of providing at least basic emergency obstetric and neonatal care (BEonC) were covered. PARTICIPANTS: Across the 32 healthcare centres, 149 members of staff (mainly midwives) agreed to participate in our surveys. PRIMARY AND SECONDARY OUTCOME MEASURES: The first survey consisted of 65 items focusing on organisational measures as well as case numbers for example, patient counts, mortality rate and complications. The second survey with 68 items asked healthcare providers about a range of factors including attitudes towards the referral process in their facility and potential barriers to a well-functioning system in their district. RESULTS: Overall, mothers'/families' consent as well as the complex administration process were found to be the main barriers (36% and 12%, respectively). Healthcare providers noted that information about other facilities has the biggest room for improvement (37%) rather than transport, timely referral of mothers and babies, or the availability of referral facilities. CONCLUSIONS: The largest barrier perceived by healthcare providers in our study was noted to be family consent and administrative burden. Moreover, lack of information about the referral system itself and other facilities seemed to be affecting healthcare providers and mothers/families alike and improvements perhaps through a shared information system is needed.
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  • Journal Article

    An ancestral apical brain region contributes to the central complex under the control of foxQ2 in the beetle Tribolium 

    He, Bicheng; Buescher, Marita; Farnworth, Max Stephen; Strobl, Frederic; Stelzer, Ernst HK; Koniszewski, Nikolaus DB; Muehlen, Dominik; Bucher, Gregor
    eLife 2019; 8: Art. e49065
    The genetic control of anterior brain development is highly conserved throughout animals. For instance, a conserved anterior gene regulatory network specifies the ancestral neuroendocrine center of animals and the apical organ of marine organisms. However, its contribution to the brain in non-marine animals has remained elusive. Here, we study the function of the Tc-foxQ2 forkhead transcription factor, a key regulator of the anterior gene regulatory network of insects. We characterized four distinct types of Tc-foxQ2 positive neural progenitor cells based on differential co-expression with Tc-six3/optix, Tc-six4, Tc-chx/vsx, Tc-nkx2.1/scro, Tc-ey, Tc-rx and Tc-fez1. An enhancer trap line built by genome editing marked Tc-foxQ2 positive neurons, which projected through the primary brain commissure and later through a subset of commissural fascicles. Eventually, they contributed to the central complex. Strikingly, in Tc-foxQ2 RNAi knock-down embryos the primary brain commissure did not split and subsequent development of midline brain structures stalled. Our work establishes foxQ2 as a key regulator of brain midline structures, which distinguish the protocerebrum from segmental ganglia. Unexpectedly, our data suggest that the central complex evolved by integrating neural cells from an ancestral anterior neuroendocrine center.
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  • Journal Article

    Anaemia among men in India: a nationally representative cross-sectional study 

    Didzun, Oliver; De Neve, Jan-Walter; Awasthi, Ashish; Dubey, Manisha; Theilmann, Michaela; Bärnighausen, Till; Vollmer, Sebastian; Geldsetzer, Pascal
    The Lancet Global Health 2019; 7(12) p.e1685-e1694
    BACKGROUND: Population-based studies on anaemia in India have mostly focused on women and children, with men with anaemia receiving much less attention despite anaemia's adverse effect on health, wellbeing, and economic productivity. This study aimed to determine the national prevalence of anaemia among men in India; how the prevalence of anaemia in men varies across India among states and districts and by sociodemographic characteristics; and whether the geographical and sociodemographic variation in the prevalence of anaemia among men is similar to that among women to inform whether anaemia reduction efforts for men should be coupled with existing efforts for women. METHODS: In this cross-sectional study, we analysed data from a nationally representative household survey carried out from January, 2015, to December, 2016, among men aged 15-54 years and women aged 15-49 years in all 29 states and seven Union Territories of India. Haemoglobin concentration was measured using the portable HemoCue Hb 201+ (HemoCue AB, Ängelholm, Sweden) and a capillary blood sample. In addition to disaggregating anaemia prevalence (separately in men and women) by state and age group, we used mixed-effects Poisson regression to determine individual-level and district-level predictors of anaemia. FINDINGS: 106 298 men and 633 305 women were included in our analysis. In men, the prevalence of any anaemia was 23·2% (95% CI 22·7-23·7), moderate or severe anaemia was 5·1% (4·9-5·4), and severe anaemia was 0·5% (0·5-0·6). An estimated 21·7% (20·9-22·5) of men with any degree of anaemia had moderate or severe anaemia compared with 53·2% (52·9-53·5) of women with any anaemia. Men aged 20-34 years had the lowest probability of having anaemia whereas anaemia prevalence among women was similar across age groups. State-level prevalence of any anaemia in men varied from 9·2% (7·7-10·9) in Manipur to 32·9% (31·0-34·7) in Bihar. The individual-level predictors of less household wealth, lower education, living in a rural area, smoking, consuming smokeless tobacco, and being underweight and the district-level predictors of living in a district with a lower rate of primary school completion, level of urbanisation, and household wealth were all associated with a higher probability of anaemia in men. Although some important exceptions were noted, district-level and state-level prevalence of anaemia among men correlated strongly with that among women. INTERPRETATION: Anaemia among men in India is an important public health problem. Because of the similarities in the patterns of geographical and sociodemographic variation of anaemia between men and women, future efforts to reduce anaemia among men could target similar population groups as those targeted in existing efforts to reduce anaemia among women.
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  • Journal Article

    Spectral Patterns Reveal Early Resistance Reactions of Barley Against Blumeria graminis f. sp. hordei 

    Kuska, Matheus Thomas; Brugger, Anna; Thomas, Stefan; Wahabzada, Mirwaes; Kersting, Kristian; Oerke, Erich-Christian; Steiner, Ulrike; Mahlein, Anne-Katrin
    Phytopathology 2017; 107(11) p.1388-1398
    Differences in early plant-pathogen interactions are mainly characterized by using destructive methods. Optical sensors are advanced techniques for phenotyping host-pathogen interactions on different scales and for detecting subtle plant resistance responses against pathogens. A microscope with a hyperspectral camera was used to study interactions between Blumeria graminis f. sp. hordei and barley (Hordeum vulgare) genotypes with high susceptibility or resistance due to hypersensitive response (HR) and papilla formation. Qualitative and quantitative assessment of pathogen development was used to explain changes in hyperspectral signatures. Within 48 h after inoculation, genotype-specific changes in the green and red range (500 to 690 nm) and a blue shift of the red-edge inflection point were observed. Manual analysis indicated resistance-specific reflectance patterns from 1 to 3 days after inoculation. These changes could be linked to host plant modifications depending on individual host-pathogen interactions. Retrospective analysis of hyperspectral images revealed spectral characteristics of HR against B. graminis f. sp. hordei. For early HR detection, an advanced data mining approach localized HR spots before they became visible on the RGB images derived from hyperspectral imaging. The link among processes during pathogenesis and host resistance to changes in hyperspectral signatures provide evidence that sensor-based phenotyping is suitable to advance time-consuming and cost-expensive visual rating of plant disease resistances
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