Survey of maize from south-western Nigeria for zearalenone, alpha- and beta-zearalenols, fumonisin B1 and enniatins produced by Fusarium species.
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Zeitschriftenartikel (Beim Verlag eingereichte Autorenversion)
A survey for the natural occurrence of Fusarium mycotoxins in maize for human consumption in four south-western states of Nigeria using High Performance Liquid Chromatography coupled with Mass Spectroscopy (HPLC/MS) showed that 93.4% of the samples were contaminated with zearalenone (ZON), alpha- and beta-zearalenols (alpha- and beta-ZOL), fumonisin B(1) (FB(1)) or enniatins (ENNs). The fractions of contaminated samples were 73% for FB(1) (mean:117 microg kg(-1), range:10-760 microg kg(-1)); 57% for ZON (mean:49 microg kg(-1), range:115-779 microg kg(-1)) and 13% for alpha-ZOL (mean: 63.6 microg kg(-1), range:32-181 microg kg(-1)), while ENNs A1, B and B(1) were present in 3, 7 and 3% of the samples respectively. There was no beta-ZOL present above the quantification limits of 50 microg kg(-1). Only the FB(1) content was significantly different at the 95% confidence level among the four states. The Fusarium species most frequently isolated from maize seeds were F. verticillioides (70%), followed by F. sporotrichioides (42%), F. graminearum (30%), F. pallidoroseum (15%), F. compactum (12%), F. proliferatum (12%), F. equiseti (9%), F. acuminatum (8%) and F. subglutinans (4%). This is the first report of the occurrence of alpha-zearalenol and enniatins in Nigerian maize.