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  • Abstract Background Epistasis marker effect models incorporating products of marker values as predictor variables in a linear regression approach (extended GBLUP, EGBLUP) have been assessed as potentially beneficial for genomic prediction, but their performance depends on marker coding. Although this fact has been recognized in literature, the nature of the problem has not been thoroughly investigated so far. Results We illustrate how the choice of marker coding implicitly specifies the model of how effects of certain allele combinations at different loci contribute to the phenotype, and investigate coding-dependent properties of EGBLUP. Moreover, we discuss an alternative categorical epistasis model (CE) eliminating undesired properties of EGBLUP and show that the CE model can improve predictive ability. Finally, we demonstrate that the coding-dependent performance of EGBLUP offers the possibility to incorporate prior experimental information into the prediction method by adapting the coding to already available phenotypic records on other traits. Conclusion Based on our results, for EGBLUP, a symmetric coding {−1,1} or {−1,0,1} should be preferred, whereas a standardization using allele frequencies should be avoided. Moreover, CE can be a valuable alternative since it does not possess the undesired theoretical properties of EGBLUP. However, which model performs best will depend on characteristics of the data and available prior information. Data from previous experiments can for instance be incorporated into the marker coding of EGBLUP.
  • Abstract Background Photosynthetic microalgae are considered a viable and sustainable resource for biofuel feedstocks, because they can produce higher biomass per land area than plants and can be grown on non-arable land. Among many microalgae considered for biofuel production, Nannochloropsis oceanica (CCMP1779) is particularly promising, because following nutrient deprivation it produces very high amounts of triacylglycerols (TAG). The committed step in TAG synthesis is catalyzed by acyl-CoA:diacylglycerol acyltransferase (DGAT). Remarkably, a total of 13 putative DGAT-encoding genes have been previously identified in CCMP1779 but most have not yet been studied in detail. Results Based on their expression profile, six out of 12 type-2 DGAT-encoding genes (NoDGTT1-NoDGTT6) were chosen for their possible role in TAG biosynthesis and the respective cDNAs were expressed in a TAG synthesis-deficient mutant of yeast. Yeast expressing NoDGTT5 accumulated TAG to the highest level. Over-expression of NoDGTT5 in CCMP1779 grown in N-replete medium resulted in levels of TAG normally observed only after N deprivation. Reduced growth rates accompanied NoDGTT5 over-expression in CCMP1779. Constitutive expression of NoDGTT5 in Arabidopsis thaliana was accompanied by increased TAG content in seeds and leaves. A broad substrate specificity for NoDGTT5 was revealed, with preference for unsaturated acyl groups. Furthermore, NoDGTT5 was able to successfully rescue the Arabidopsis tag1-1 mutant by restoring the TAG content in seeds. Conclusions Taken together, our results identified NoDGTT5 as the most promising gene for the engineering of TAG synthesis in multiple hosts among the 13 DGAT-encoding genes of N. oceanica CCMP1779. Consequently, this study demonstrates the potential of NoDGTT5 as a tool for enhancing the energy density in biomass by increasing TAG content in transgenic crops used for biofuel production.
  • Abstract Background Re-exploration for bleeding accounts for increased morbidity and mortality after major cardiac operations. The use of temporary epicardial pacemaker wires is a common procedure at many departments. The removal of these wires postoperatively can potentially lead to a serious bleeding necessitating intervention. Methods From Jan 2011 till Dec 2015 a total of 4244 major cardiac procedures were carried out at our department. We used temporary epicardial pacemaker wires in all cases. We collected all re-explorations for bleeding and pericardial tamponade from our surgical database and then we focused on the late re-explorations, meaning on the 4th postoperative day and thereafter, trying to identify the removal of the temporary pacemaker wires as the definite cause of bleeding. Patients’ records and medication were examined. Results Thirty-nine late re-explorations for bleeding, consisting of repeat sternotomies, thoracotomies and subxiphoid pericardial drainages, were gathered. Eight patients had an acute bleeding incidence after removal of the temporary wires (0.18%). In four of these patients, a pericardial drainage was inserted, whereas the remaining patients were re-explorated through a repeat sternotomy. Two patients died of the acute pericardial tamponade, three had a blood transfusion and one had a wound infection. Seven out of eight patients were either on dual antiplatelet therapy or on combination of aspirin and vitamin K antagonist. Conclusions A need for re-exploration due to removal of the temporary pacemaker wires is a very rare complication, which however increases morbidity and mortality. Adjustment of the postoperative anticoagulation therapy at the time of removal of the wires could further minimize or even prevent this serious complication.
  • We study the kinetics of alignment and registration of block copolymers in an inhomogeneous electric field by computer simulations of a soft, coarse-grained model. The two blocks of the symmetric diblock copolymers are characterized by different dielectric constants. First, we demonstrate that a combination of graphoepitaxy and a homogeneous electric field extends the maximal distance between the topographical guiding patterns that result in defect-free ordering compared to graphoepitaxy alone. In a second study, the electric field in the thin block copolymer film is fabricated by spatially structured electrodes on an isolating substrate arranged in a one-dimensional periodic array; no additional topographical guiding patterns are applied. The dielectrophoretic effect induces long-range orientational order of the lamellae and, additionally, registers the lamellar structure with the electrodes due to the field inhomogeneities at the edges of the structured electrodes. Thus, orientational and translational order is established by the inhomogeneous electric field. The simulations identify a process protocol of time-dependent electric potentials that suppresses defect formation by initially forming a sandwich-like structure and subsequently reorienting these lying into standing lamellae that are registered with the structure of the electrodes. This process-directed self-assembly results in large defect-free arrays of aligned and registered lamellae using electrodes with a saw-tooth period of 4 lamellar periodicities, L0, and a spacing of 10L0.
  • Selective motoneurons (MNs) degeneration in the brain stem, hypoglossal motoneurons (HMNs), and the spinal cord resulting in patients paralysis and eventual death are prominent features of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). Previous studies have suggested that mitochondrial respiratory impairment, low Ca2+ buffering and homeostasis and excitotoxicity are the pathological phenotypes found in mice, and cell culture models of familial ALS (fALS) linked with Cu/Zn-superoxide dismutase 1 (SOD1) mutation. In our study, we aimed to understand the impact of riluzole and melatonin on excitotoxicity, neuronal protection and Ca2+ signaling in individual HMNs ex vivo in symptomatic adult ALS mouse brain stem slice preparations and in WT and SOD1-G93A transfected SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma cell line using fluorescence microscopy, calcium imaging with high speed charged coupled device camera, together with immunohistochemistry, cell survival assay and histology. In our experiments, riluzole but not melatonin ameliorates MNs degeneration and moderately inhibit excitotoxicity and cell death in SH-SY5YWT or SH-SY5YG93A cell lines induced by complex IV blocker sodium azide. In brain stem slice preparations, riluzole significantly inhibit HMNs cell death induced by inhibiting the mitochondrial electron transport chain by Na-azide. In the HMNs of brainstem slice prepared from adult (14-15 weeks) WT, and corresponding symptomatic SOD1G93A mice, we measured the effect of riluzole and melatonin on [Ca2+]i using fura-2 AM ratiometric calcium imaging in individual MNs. Riluzole caused a significant decrease in [Ca2+]i transients and reversibly inhibited [Ca2+]i transients in Fura-2 AM loaded HMNs exposed to Na-azide in adult symptomatic SOD1G93A mice. On the contrary, melatonin failed to show similar effects in the HMNs of WT and SOD1G93A mice. Intrinsic nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NADH) fluorescence, an indicator of mitochondrial metabolism and health in MNs, showed enhanced intrinsic NADH fluorescence in HMNs in presence of riluzole when respiratory chain activity was inhibited by Na-azide. Riluzole's inhibition of excitability and Ca2+ signaling may be due to its multiple effects on cellular function of mitochondria. Therefore formulating a drug therapy to stabilize mitochondria-related signaling pathways using riluzole might be a valuable approach for cell death protection in ALS. Taken together, the pharmacological profiles of the riluzole and melatonin strengthen the case that riluzole indeed can be used as a therapeutic agent in ALS whereas claims of the efficacy of melatonin alone need further investigation as it fail to show significant neuroprotection efficacy.
  • Biomass is generally believed to be carbon neutral. However, recent studies have challenged the carbon neutrality hypothesis by introducing metric indicators to assess the global warming potential of biogenic CO2 (GWPbio). In this study we calculated the GWPbio factors using a forest growth model and radiative forcing effects with a time horizon of 100 years and applied the factors to five life cycle assessment (LCA) case studies of bioproducts. The forest carbon change was also accounted for in the LCA studies. GWPbio factors ranged from 0.13–0.32, indicating that biomass could be an attractive energy resource when compared with fossil fuels. As expected, short rotation and fast-growing biomass plantations produced low GWPbio. Long-lived wood products also allowed more regrowth of biomass to be accounted as absorption of the CO2 emission from biomass combustion. The LCA case studies showed that the total life cycle GHG emissions were closely related to GWPbio and energy conversion efficiency. By considering the GWPbio factors and the forest carbon change, the production of ethanol and bio-power appeared to have higher GHG emissions than petroleum-derived diesel at the highest GWPbio.
  • A measurement of the calorimeter response to isolated charged hadrons in the ATLAS detector at the LHC is presented. This measurement is performed with 3.2 nb−1 of proton–proton collision data at s√=7 TeV from 2010 and 0.1 nb−1 of data at s√=8 TeV from 2012. A number of aspects of the calorimeter response to isolated hadrons are explored. After accounting for energy deposited by neutral particles, there is a 5% discrepancy in the modelling, using various sets of Geant4 hadronic physics models, of the calorimeter response to isolated charged hadrons in the central calorimeter region. The description of the response to anti-protons at low momenta is found to be improved with respect to previous analyses. The electromagnetic and hadronic calorimeters are also examined separately, and the detector simulation is found to describe the response in the hadronic calorimeter well. The jet energy scale uncertainty and correlations in scale between jets of different momenta and pseudorapidity are derived based on these studies. The uncertainty is 2–5% for jets with transverse momenta above 2 TeV, where this method provides the jet energy scale uncertainty for ATLAS.
  • Anti-apoptotic properties of physiological and elevated levels of the cellular prion protein (PrPc) under stress conditions are well documented. Yet, detrimental effects of elevated PrPc levels under stress conditions, such as exposure to staurosporine (STS) have also been described. In the present study, we focused on discerning early apoptotic STS-induced proteome and phospho-proteome changes in SH-SY5Y human neuroblastoma cells stably transfected either with an empty or PRNP-containing vector, expressing physiological or supraphysiological levels of PrPc, respectively. PrPc-overexpression per se appears to stress the cells under STS-free conditions as indicated by diminished cell viability of PrPc-overexpressing versus control cells. However, PrPc-overexpression becomes advantageous following exposure to STS. Thus, only a short exposure (2 h) to 1 μM STS results in lower survival rates and significantly higher caspase-3 activity in control versus PrPc-overexpressing cells. Hence, by exposing both experimental groups to the same apoptotic conditions we were able to induce apoptosis in control, but not in PrPc-overexpressing cells (as assessed by caspase-3 activity), which allowed for filtering out proteins possibly contributing to protection against STS-induced apoptosis in PrPc-overexpressing cells. Among other proteins regulated by different PrPc levels following exposure to STS, those involved in maintenance of cytoskeleton integrity caught our attention. In particular, the finding that elevated PrPc levels significantly reduce profilin-1 (PFN-1) expression. PFN-1 is known to facilitate STS-induced apoptosis. Silencing of PFN-1 expression by siRNA significantly increased viability of PrPc-overexpressing versus control cells, under STS treatment. In addition, PrPc-overexpressing cells depleted of PFN-1 exhibited increased viability versus PrPc-overexpressing cells with preserved PFN-1 expression, both subjected to STS. Concomitant increase in caspase-3 activity was observed in control versus PrPc-overexpressing cells after treatment with siRNA- PFN-1 and STS. We suggest that reduction of PFN-1 expression by elevated levels of PrPc may contribute to protective effects PrPc-overexpressing SH-SY5Y cells confer against STS-induced apoptosis.
  • Abstract Background This study was performed to assess oral and nutritional status of nursing home residents in a region of Lower Saxony, Germany. The aim was to show potential associations between oral status (dentate or edentulous), further anamnestic factors (dementia, age, smoking) and the risk for malnutrition in this population. Methods In this observational cross-sectional pilot study of residents from four nursing homes Mini Nutritional Assessment (MNA), Body-Mass-Index (BMI), dental status (DMF-T) and periodontal situation (PSR®/PSI) were recorded. Associations of recorded factors with oral health and nutritional status were examined in univariate and multivariate analysis. Results Eighty-seven residents participated in the study (mean age: 84.1 years; female: 72%, demented: 47%). Average BMI was 26.2 kg/m2; according MNA 52% were at risk for malnutrition. 48% of the residents were edentulous, and the average DMF-T of dentulous was 25.0 (3.7) (D-T: 2.0 [3.1], M-T: 15.0 [8.3], F-T: 8.0 [7.4]); PSR®/PSI 3 and 4 (need for periodontal treatment) showed 79% of residents. In univariate analysis dementia (OR 2.5 CI95 1.1–5.6) but not being edentulous (OR 2.0 CI95 0.8–5.8) were associated with being at risk for malnutrition. Dementia remained associated in multivariate analysis adjusting for age and sex, (OR 3.1 CI95 1.2–8.2) and additionally being edentulous (OR 2.8 CI95 1.1–7.3) became associated significantly. Furthermore, nursing home residents with dementia had more remaining teeth (OR 2.5 CI95 1.1–5.9). Conclusion Dementia was a stronger predictor for risk of malnutrition in nursing home residents than being edentulous. Further studies to elucidate the possible role of oral health as cofactor for malnutrition in dementia are needed.
  • The dimer of trans-N-methylacetamide serves as a simple model for hydrogen bonds in peptides, free of any backbone distortions. Its preferred structures represent benchmark systems for an accurate quantum chemical description of protein interactions. The trimer allows for either two linear or three strained hydrogen bonds, with the former being the only structural motif considered so far in the literature, but the latter winning in energy by a large margin due to London dispersion. A combination of linear Raman and infrared supersonic jet techniques with B3LYP-D3/aug-cc-pVTZ quantum chemical predictions corrects earlier tentative spectroscopic assignments based on a hybrid density functional without dispersion correction. Linear Amide I–III infrared spectra of the jet-cooled monomer are compared to those recently obtained by action spectroscopy.
  • Abstract Background Accidents or neurodegenerative diseases like amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) can lead to progressing, extensive, and complete paralysis leaving patients aware but unable to communicate (locked-in state). Brain-computer interfaces (BCI) based on electroencephalography represent an important approach to establish communication with these patients. The most common BCI for communication rely on the P300, a positive deflection arising in response to rare events. To foster broader application of BCIs for restoring lost function, also for end-users with impaired vision, we explored whether there were specific time windows during the day in which a P300 driven BCI should be preferably applied. Methods The present study investigated the influence of time of the day and modality (visual vs. auditory) on P300 amplitude and latency. A sample of 14 patients (end-users) with ALS and 14 healthy age matched volunteers participated in the study and P300 event-related potentials (ERP) were recorded at four different times (10, 12 am, 2, & 4 pm) during the day. Results Results indicated no differences in P300 amplitudes or latencies between groups (ALS patients v. healthy participants) or time of measurement. In the auditory condition, latencies were shorter and amplitudes smaller as compared to the visual condition. Conclusion Our findings suggest applicability of EEG/BCI sessions in patients with ALS throughout normal waking hours. Future studies using actual BCI systems are needed to generalize these findings with regard to BCI effectiveness/efficiency and other times of day.
  • Results of several studies point to an increase in reported child sexual abuse offences in Germany and an even higher number of undetected cases are assumed. In addition, even more cases regarding the distribution of child pornography have been reported. On behalf of victims of child sexual abuse and for the general public, a preventive treatment approach for people with a sexual interest in children is of prime importance. Currently, there is no published, evaluated therapeutic approach for treating potential offenders, dark field offenders and bright field offenders with a sexual interest in children in an outpatient setting. We designed a cognitive-behavioral therapeutic approach that integrated need- and resource-oriented concepts for the specific treatment of those people. This treatment program comprises thirteen modules and is established for a period of about one and a half years. The therapy concept is presented in detail and we report experiences with two male clients. We found a reduction of child abusive behavior (on- and off-line), cognitive distortions and subjective psychological distress, an increase of the extent of self-perceived sexual self-regulation, life satisfaction and self-efficacy in general and a high level of clients’ satisfaction with the therapy concept. The present therapy concept shows promising results as a potential viable treatment program to protect children by reaching out to people with a self-reported sexual interest in children in an outpatient setting, but further research is necessary.
  • Abstract Background Feather pecking and aggressive pecking in laying hens are serious economic and welfare issues. In spite of extensive research on feather pecking during the last decades, the motivation for this behavior is still not clear. A small to moderate heritability has frequently been reported for these traits. Recently, we identified several single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) associated with feather pecking by mapping selection signatures in two divergent feather pecking lines. Here, we performed a genome-wide association analysis (GWAS) for feather pecking and aggressive pecking behavior, then combined the results with those from the recent selection signature experiment, and linked them to those obtained from a differential gene expression study. Methods A large F2 cross of 960 F2 hens was generated using the divergent lines as founders. Hens were phenotyped for feather pecks delivered (FPD), aggressive pecks delivered (APD), and aggressive pecks received (APR). Individuals were genotyped with the Illumina 60K chicken Infinium iSelect chip. After data filtering, 29,376 SNPs remained for analyses. Single-marker GWAS was performed using a Poisson model. The results were combined with those from the selection signature experiment using Fisher’s combined probability test. Results Numerous significant SNPs were identified for all traits but with low false discovery rates. Nearly all significant SNPs were located in clusters that spanned a maximum of 3 Mb and included at least two significant SNPs. For FPD, four clusters were identified, which increased to 13 based on the meta-analysis (FPDmeta). Seven clusters were identified for APD and three for APR. Eight genes (of the 750 investigated genes located in the FPDmeta clusters) were significantly differentially-expressed in the brain of hens from both lines. One gene, SLC12A9, and the positional candidate gene for APD, GNG2, may be linked to the monomanine signaling pathway, which is involved in feather pecking and aggressive behavior. Conclusions Combining the results from the GWAS with those of the selection signature experiment substantially increased the statistical power. The behavioral traits were controlled by many genes with small effects and no single SNP had effects large enough to justify its use in marker-assisted selection.
  • Climatic and biome changes of the past million years influenced the population structure and genetic diversity of soil-living arthropods in Europe. However, their effects on the genetic structure of widespread and abundant soil animal species such as the Collembola Parisotoma notabilis remain virtually unknown. This generalist and parthenogenetic species is an early colonizer of disturbed habitats and often occurs in human modified environments. To investigate ancient climatic influence and recent distributions on the genetic structure of P. notabilis we analyzed populations on a pan-European scale using three genetic markers differing in substitution rates. The results showed that P. notabilis comprises several genetic lineages with distinct distribution ranges that diverged in the Miocene. Genetic distances of COI between lineages ranged between 15% and 18% and molecular clock estimates suggest Late Miocene divergences considering the standard arthropod rate of 2.3% per my. Compared to other soil-living arthropods like oribatid mites, European lineages of P. notabilis are rather young and genetically uniform. The close association with anthropogenic habitats presumably contributed to rapid spread in Europe.
  • Abstract Background End-of-life decision making constitutes a major challenge for bioethical deliberation and political governance in modern democracies: On the one hand, it touches upon fundamental convictions about life, death, and the human condition. On the other, it is deeply rooted in religious traditions and historical experiences and thus shows great socio-cultural diversity. The bioethical discussion of such cultural issues oscillates between liberal individualism and cultural stereotyping. Our paper confronts the bioethical expert discourse with public moral attitudes. Methods The paper is based on a qualitative study comprising 12 focus group discussions with religious and secular persons in the USA, Germany, and Israel (n = 82). Considering the respective socio-political and legal frameworks, the thematic analysis focuses on moral attitudes towards end-of-life decision making and explores the complex interplay between individual preferences, culture, and religion. Results Our findings draw attention to the variety and complexity of cultural and religious aspects of end-of-life decision making. Although there is local consensus that goes beyond radical individualism, positions are not neatly matched with national cultures or religious denominations. Instead, the relevance of the specific situatedness of religious beliefs and cultural communities becomes visible: Their status and role in individual situations, for example, as consensual or conflicting on the level of personal perspectives, family relationships, or broader social contexts, e.g., as a majority or minority culture within a political system. Conclusions As the group discussions indicate, there are no clear-cut positions anchored in “nationality,” “culture,” or “religion.” Instead, attitudes are personally decided on as part of a negotiated context representing the political, social and existential situatedness of the individual. Therefore, more complex theoretical and practical approaches to cultural diversity have to be developed.
  • Abstract Background In recent years, early Endothelial Progenitor Cells (eEPCs) have been proven as effective tool in murine ischemic AKI and in diabetic nephropathy. The mechanisms of eEPC-mediated vasoprotection have been elucidated in detail. Besides producing a diverse range of humoral factors, the cells also act by secreting vasomodulatory microvesicles. Only few data in contrast have been published about the role of so-called Endothelial Colony Forming Cells (ECFCs - late EPCs) in ischemic AKI. We thus aimed to investigate ECFC effects on postischemic kidney function over several weeks. Our special interest focused on endothelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EndoMT), peritubular capillary density (PTCD), endothelial alpha-Tubulin (aT - cytoskeletal integrity), and endothelial p62 (marker of autophagocytic flux). Methods Eight to twelve weeks old male C57Bl/6 N mice were subjected to bilateral renal pedicle clamping for 35 or 45 min, respectively. Donor-derived syngeneic ECFCs (0.5 × 106) were i.v. injected at the end of ischemia. Animals were analyzed 1, 4 and 6 weeks later. Results Cell therapy improved kidney function exclusively at week 1 (35 and 45 min). Ischemia-induced fibrosis was diminished in all experimental groups by ECFCs, while PTCD loss remained unaffected. Significant EndoMT was detected in only two of 6 groups (35 min, week 4 and 45 min, week 6), ECFCs reduced EndoMT only in the latter. Endothelial aT declined under almost all experimental conditions and these effects were further aggravated by ECFCs. p62 was elevated in endothelial cells, more so after 45 than after 35 min of ischemia. Cell therapy did not modulate p62 abundances at any time point. Conclusion A single dose of ECFCs administered shortly post-ischemia is capable to reduce interstitial fibrosis in the mid- to long-term whereas excretory dysfunction is improved only in a transient manner. There are certain differences in renal outcome parameters between eEPCs and ECFC. The latter do not prevent animals from peritubular capillary loss and they also do not further elevate endothelial p62. We conclude that differences between eEPCs and ECFCs result from certain mechanisms by which the cells act around and within vessels. Overall, ECFC treatment was not as efficient as eEPC therapy in preventing mice from ischemia-induced mid- to long-term damage.
  • Münzel, Mark (2017):
    GISCA Occasional Papers; Vol. 9. GISCA,Göttingen Institute for Social and Cultural Anthropology, Georg-August-Universität Göttingen
    Der sog. „Indianische Perspektivismus“ (Perspectivismo Ameríndio) stellt einen Versuch dar, europäische Philosophie, nicht zuletzt die Machtphantasien eines faschistoid verstandenen Nietzsche, südamerikanischen Schamanen anzulasten. Das erzähle ich in Form einer Tierparabel, die den Stil südamerikanischer indianischer Tierparabeln nachahmt, dabei aber den Schematismus des Strukturalismus und des Perspektivismus karikiert.
  • he execution of coercive and legitimate power by an authority assures cooperation and prohibits free-riding. While coercive power can be comprised of severe punishment and strict monitoring, legitimate power covers expert, and informative procedures. The perception of these powers wielded by authorities stimulates specific cognitions: trust, relational climates, and motives. With four experiments, the single and combined impact of coercive and legitimate power on these processes and on intended cooperation of n1 = 120, n2 = 130, n3 = 368, and n4 = 102 student participants is investigated within two exemplary contexts (tax contributions, insurance claims). Findings reveal that coercive power increases an antagonistic climate and enforced compliance, whereas legitimate power increases reason-based trust, a service climate, and voluntary cooperation. Unexpectedly, legitimate power is additionally having a negative effect on an antagonistic climate and a positive effect on enforced compliance; these findings lead to a modification of theoretical assumptions. However, solely reason-based trust, but not climate perceptions and motives, mediates the relationship between power and intended cooperation. Implications for theory and practice are discussed.
  • Differential cross sections are presented for the prompt and non-prompt production of the hidden-charm states X(3872) and ψ(2S), in the decay mode J/ψπ+π−, measured using 11.4 fb−1 of pp collisions at s√=8 TeV by the ATLAS detector at the LHC. The ratio of cross-sections X(3872)/ψ(2S) is also given, separately for prompt and non-prompt components, as well as the non-prompt fractions of X(3872) and ψ(2S). Assuming independent single effective lifetimes for non-prompt X(3872) and ψ(2S) production gives RB=B(B→X(3872)+any)B(X(3872)→J/ψπ+π−)B(B→ψ(2S)+any)B(ψ(2S)→J/ψπ+π−)=(3.95±0.32(stat)±0.08(sys))×10−2 separating short- and long-lived contributions, assuming that the short-lived component is due to Bc decays, gives RB = (3.57 ± 0.33(stat) ± 0.11(sys)) × 10−2, with the fraction of non-prompt X(3872) produced via Bc decays for pT(X(3872)) > 10 GeV being (25 ± 13(stat) ± 2(sys) ± 5(spin))%. The distributions of the dipion invariant mass in the X(3872) and ψ(2S) decays are also measured and compared to theoretical predictions.
  • erticillium wilt causes severe yield losses in a broad range of economically important crops worldwide. As many soil fumigants have a severe environmental impact, new biocontrol strategies are needed. Members of the genus Bacillus are known as plant growth-promoting bacteria (PGPB) as well as biocontrol agents of pests and diseases. In this study, we isolated 267 Bacillus strains from root-associated soil of field-grown tomato plants. We evaluated the antifungal potential of 20 phenotypically diverse strains according to their antagonistic activity against the two phytopathogenic fungi Verticillium dahliae and Verticillium longisporum. In addition, the 20 strains were sequenced and phylogenetically characterized by multi-locus sequence typing (MLST) resulting in 7 different Bacillus thuringiensis and 13 Bacillus weihenstephanensis strains. All B. thuringiensis isolates inhibited in vitro the tomato pathogen V. dahliae JR2, but had only low efficacy against the tomato-foreign pathogen V. longisporum 43. All B. weihenstephanensis isolates exhibited no fungicidal activity whereas three B. weihenstephanensis isolates showed antagonistic effects on both phytopathogens. These strains had a rhizoid colony morphology, which has not been described for B. weihenstephanensis strains previously. Genome analysis of all isolates revealed putative genes encoding fungicidal substances and resulted in identification of 304 secondary metabolite gene clusters including 101 non-ribosomal polypeptide synthetases and 203 ribosomal-synthesized and post-translationally modified peptides. All genomes encoded genes for the synthesis of the antifungal siderophore bacillibactin. In the genome of one B. thuringiensis strain, a gene cluster for zwittermicin A was detected. Isolates which either exhibited an inhibitory or an interfering effect on the growth of the phytopathogens carried one or two genes encoding putative mycolitic chitinases, which might contribute to antifungal activities. This indicates that chitinases contribute to antifungal activities. The present study identified B. thuringiensis isolates from tomato roots which exhibited in vitro antifungal activity against Verticillium species.

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